carthamus lanatus uses

There are currently 12 cereal Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 53:1327-1334, Sheppard & Vitou 2000 Acta Oecologia 21(6):1-11, Crump et al. Australasian Plant Pathology 25:143, Grace et al. In spite of being one of the major oilseed crops, little is known about genetic diversity and relationships between species of safflower. Peirce, J.R. (1990) Morphological and phenological variation in three populations of saffron thistle (Carthamus lanatus L.) from Western Australia. 1.7 Carthamus species with 11, 22 and 32 pairs of chromosomes 12 1.8 Alloploids of cultivated safflower with species of different chromosome numbers 13 1.9 Genus reclassification 13 2 Safflower biology, production and genetics 15 2.1 Biology 15 2.2 Production issues 18 2.3 Genetics 19 3 Uses and world distribution 25 3.1 Uses 25 Peirce, J.R. (1992) The biology of Australian weeds: 23 Carthamus lanatus L. Plant Protection Quarterly, 7 (3): 86-95. An example of an aromatic plant is safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a member of Asteraceae family, is a multi-purpose crop for oil, medicinal and industrial uses. Saffron thistle (Carthamus lanatus) Photo: (c) Harry Rose CC BY 2.0. When using any agricultural chemicals please ensure that you always follow instructions on the label and any permit. Pest and Disease Information Service (PaDIS). 1996. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. Proceedings 13th Australian Weeds Conference, pp 529-532, Wright et al. Carthamus lanatus . It is a highly adaptable member of the aster family, heavily armed with spines and 1: Plant material of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) or woolly distaff thistle (Carthamus lanatus L.) used in the overwintering trial sown at Ranzin, Northeastern Germany, at 25th, 2006, its sources, and the average plant … All florets are tubular and yellow. This annual plant is a native of the Mediterranean Basin, but it is familiar in other places where it was introduced and has become a noxious weed, such as in parts of North America and southern Australia [3] with similar climates. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development's Agriculture and Food division is committed to growing and protecting WA's agriculture and food sector. Growth Habit: An erect, spiny plant which can grow up to 150 cm in height but averages 100 cm. Saffron thistle (Carthamus lanatus) Background . The California State Noxious Weeds List from the California Department of Food and Agriculture. The record derives from TICA (data supplied on 2012-02-11 ) which reports it as an accepted name (record 924F60B7-0958-40E6-85BF-67C21DA56E1F ) with original publication details: … FAC 5004 (Division 4) defines a noxious weed as any species of plant that is, or is liable to be, troublesome, aggressive, intrusive, detrimental, or destructive to agriculture, silviculture, or important native species, and difficult to … The Rangeland Journal 24:313-325, Grace 2001. Carthamus lanatus var. Its spiny foliage can injure livestock. Media in category "Carthamus lanatus"The following 61 files are in this category, out of 61 total. The leaves are alternate and have long marginal and terminal spines. It is now widespread in parts of the cereal growing pastoral areas (Goldfields) in WA. woolly distaff thistle. Cal-IPC rating: Moderate Plant Distribution. Carthamus lanatus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Threat status Europe: Not evaluated (IUCN) The EUNIS species component has very limited information about this species. The main focus of the EUNIS species component is to provide … & Vacc.) Saffron thistle (Carthamus lanatus) is regarded as an environmental weed in all states and territories except Tasmania and is listed as a priority environmental weed in one Natural Resource Management region. The results can also be downloaded as a CSV file (Unicode UTF-8 encoding).. See "Status", "Confidence level", "Source" for definitions. lanatus Carthamus macedonicus Herzog, 1899 Carthamus turbinatus Nyman, 1879 Cathamus lanatus … 1980. [9], In pastures, good pasture cover in Autumn will reduce germination,[10] suggesting that pastures should be managed to reduce grazing pressure over summer increase the cover from summer-growing perennial grasses. Dimitrios Stagos, Dimitrios Balabanos, Salomi Savva, Zoi Skaperda, Alexandros Priftis, Efthalia Kerasioti, Eleni V. Mikropoulou, Konstantina Vougogiannopoulou, Sofia Mitakou, Maria Halabalaki, Demetrios Kouretas, " Extracts from the Mediterranean Food Plants Carthamus lanatus, Cichorium intybus, and Cichorium spinosum … Accessed: 07-Oct-06. Mature leaves are stiff. Saffron thistle is a hardy weed of cultivation that displaces more useful species in poor pasture and is arguably the most widespread thistle in Australia. Family: Asteraceae. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant. Pamp., 1936 Carthamus lanatus var. Search for saffron thistle in WAOL using the scientific name Carthamus lanatus. Lanatus, a Latin word, means … Dry seeds tangle in wool. [4] Many C. lanatus seeds are dormant (will not germinate, even in ideal conditions), and seedbanks decrease by approximately 70-74% per year if no seed is added. Saffron thistle Carthamus lanatus_DAFWA.jpg. Phomentrioloxin is a phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol produced in liquid culture by Phomopsis sp. There are more C. lanatus seeds in the soil in Australian pastures than in similar French pastures, probably because there are more seed predators capable of removing seeds of this size in France than in Australia. This is a spiny, glandular, woolly plant, which often looks like it is covered in spiderweb due to its fine tangled fibers. Control methods for this pest can be found through the APVMA website, use "saffron thistle" as the pest name. Only registered products can be used for weed and pest control. Carthamus lanatus can grow up to 3 1/2’ tall. Heads made up of small flowers (florets) to three centimetres long. 2002. Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. It contains a higher percentage of essential unsaturated fatty acids and a lower percentage of saturated fatty acids than other edible vegetable seed oils. Wheat contaminated with saffron thistle seed is liable to dockage. The flower head has many long, sharp phyllaries that can be up to several centimeters long, and often bend backwards (recurved). The disc florets are bright yellow. Saffron thistle (Carthamus lanatus) is regarded as an environmental weed in all states and territories except Tasmania and is listed as a priority environmental weed in one Natural Resource Management region. Page last updated: Monday, 4 May 2020 - 2:23pm, Saffron thistle Carthamus lanatus_DAFWA.jpg, Saffron thistle Carthamus lanatus flower_DAFWA.jpg, Saffron thistle Carthamus lanatus seeds_DAFWA.jpg, Email Pest and Disease Information Service (PaDIS), Instructions to use MPG Reporter app general V1.pdf, Reporting weeds using MyPestGuide™ Reporter, Biosecurity and Agriculture Management Act, Western Australia's agriculture and food sector, Casual, short-term employment and work experience. This article describes the nature of the plant with links to pest control methods. Edible Uses An edible oil is obtained from the seed. 03. 16 plant name records match your search criteria Carthamus lanatus.The results are below. The flower has been used since ancient times in the Philippines, which it has been called kasubha by the Tagalog people. Introduction: Wooly distaff thistle, Carthamus lanatus, is a USDA federally listed noxious weed and can be considered one of the worst pasture weeds in North America and Australia (Briese, D. T. 1988; Burrill, L.C. divaricatus (Bég. Carthamus lanatus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Carthamus (family Compositae ). Seedlings grow into a rosette which rarely exceeds 20 cm in diameter. The three most potent extracts, Cichorium intybus , Carthamus lanatus , and Cichorium spinosum , inhibited OH • -induced mutations in … Carthamus lanatus: leaf blades usually pinnately lobed and spinose-toothed, stems white-tomentose, and corollas yellow or rarely white (vs. C. tinctorius, with leaf blades usually entire or spinose-toothed, stem more or less glabrous, and corollas orange, orange-red, or yellow). USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. For the minimum temperature, 5.5°C and -1.2°C, respectively, are reported for this place Tab. The spines contaminate wool, and make handling contaminated sheep painful. Leaves: Variable; basal leaves in a rosette, lanceolate, initially with few lobes but older leaves more dissected, to 20 centimetres long and to five centimetres wide; stem leaves to 11 centimetres long and to five centimetres wide, usually hairless but some plants with hairy leaves, base stem-clasping and not on a leaf stalk. [6], This plant can be controlled using a range of herbicides. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this species.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species like Carthamus lanatus L. PhD Thesis, University of New England, Australia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carthamus_lanatus&oldid=971235098, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 August 2020, at 22:35. The plant matures with cereal crops and seed is harvested with the grain, and this is one of the main methods of spread. [5] This means that germination is most likely in areas with little vegetation or pasture cover, e.g. In spring a single, stiff, wiry stem grows from the centre of the … Carthamus Species Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry ... (C. lanatus, C. palaestinus, and C. turkestanicus) and one cultivated (C. tinctorius) ... have been used in various pharmaceutical and industrial applications, including producing herbal This article describes the nature of the plant with links to pest control methods. Carthamus lanatus L. is a species of thistle and belongs to the family Asteraceae. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Carthamus lanatus is a species of thistle known as woolly distaff thistle,[1] downy safflower[2] or saffron thistle. It is seldom eaten, but its seeds are oil and protein rich. It is closely related to safflower, which is in the same genus. Seeds also require specific temperature cues and water, which means that most seeds germinate in Autumn (Fall). Carthamus lanatus is a species of thistle known as woolly distaff thistle, downy safflower or saffron thistle. Population models suggest that strategic grazing may be one of the most effective long-term control option for infested pastures. Assessment … In Australia the plant is commonly regarded as a pasture weed because: it competes with desired plants such as pasture or crops, seeds and bracts become embedded in wool which results in lower returns to farmers, and because dense infestations restrict stock access and are difficult to walk through. Carthamus lanatus L. Woolly distaff thistle Carthamus lanatus, a dicot, is an annual herb that is not native to California; it has been naturalized in the wild. Carthamus lanatus (woolly distaff thistle) is a winter annual forb (family Asteraceae) found in disturbed open sites, roadsides, pastures, annual grasslands, and waste areas. (teleomorph: Diaporthe gulyae), a potential mycoherbicide proposed for the control of the annual weed Carthamus lanatus. Observation Search (688 records) Plant Characteristics. Saffron thistle Carthamus lanatus.jpg. Carthamus lanatus L. Synonyms - Kentrophyllum lanatum (L.) DC Family: Asteraceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Saffron thistle (Carthamus lanatus) is a pest in Western Australia (WA). [11], Parsons & Cuthbertson 1992. A rosette-feeding fly Botanophila turcica shows some promise. Further information on saffron thistle can be found on the saffron thistle: what you should know page. 1994). Inkata, Melbourne, Grace et al. Flowers: In solitary heads to two centimetres wide, surrounded by stiff spiny bracts (involucral bracts) to five centimetres long. Accessed: 2018 May. In this study EST-SSR markers were used to evaluate and characterize 42 genotypes from six species including Carthamus tinctorius, Carthamus palaestinus, Carthamus oxyacanthus, Carthamus lanatus, Carthamus dentatus, and Carthamus … Names: Carthamus is from the medieval Latin name qartum or the Arabic quarthami which is the name for Safflower and means to paint, referring to the dyes extracted from the flowers of some species. It is hardy to zone (UK) 7. 2002. Flowers late spring to autumn. The anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and analgesic effects of C. lanatus extracts have been previously reported (Bocheva, Mikhova, Taskova, Mitova & Duddeck, 2003; Jalil et al., 2003; Taskova, Mitova, Najdenski, Tzvetkova … The oil, light coloured and easily clarified, is used in salad dressings, cooking oils and margarines[2, 4, 7, … The Western Australian Organism List (WAOL) contains information on the legal status of this pest in Western Australia (WA). One plant can produce many stems which mat together due to their spininess and form a small thicket. Carthamus lanatus is a ANNUAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft). Users of agricultural chemical products must always strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. The fruit is an achene about half a centimeter long with many rigid pappus scales. The plant is now relatively easily dealt with in crops and grazing areas. It is only considered an important weed in Australia. The genus Carthamus, the distaff thistles, includes plants in the thistle family. MyPestGuide™ Reporter via app or online (Select 'Send report to MyWeedWatcher' from menu)mypestguide.agric.wa.gov.au, Pest and Disease Information Service (PaDIS) +61 (0)8 9368 [email protected] Quick facts. Carthamus lanatus L. (In use by NZOR) Taxon Concept NZOR Concept Id 93b6647d-8ca1-4b3e-a60a-21060179a20b According to Allan Herbarium 2007: New Zealand Plant Names Database Concepts - Asterales. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 7: 587-594, Grace et al. Woolly distaff thistle is aptly named because it is densely covered in hair. The group is native to Europe, North Africa, and parts of Asia. Stems: Stiff, ribbed, branched above, hairless to downy. A shortened version of the URL, helpful when communicating the URL over email or verbally. lanatus L. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2001) Carthamus lanatus L. Images from the web. Saffron thistle is an erect annual thistle to one metre (rarely to 1.5 metres) high, native from southern Europe and the Mediterranean to central Asia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 41 (6): 1193 - 1201. Noxious Weeds of Australia. saffron thistle. Saffron thistle (Carthamus lanatus) is widespread throughout the cropping areas of the State and there appear to be no areas within its ecological limits that are free of the weed. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in … [8] The potential for using pathogens already present in Australia has also been investigated. Seeds: Seeds ovoid, grey-brown, four to six millimetres long, about three millimetres wide, hairless, four-angled, apex with linear scales to one centimetre long. It is generally not considered a weed in much of Europe. & Vaccari Carthamus exsuccus Chaix, 1786 Carthamus lanatus var. A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Published on the internet. Seedlings leaves are less deeply lobed. Impact Assessment - Saffron thistle (Carthamus lanatus) in Victoria (Nox) Back | Table | Feedback Assessment of plant invasiveness is done by evaluating biological and ecological characteristics such as germination requirements, growth rate, competitive ability, reproduction methods and dispersal mechanisms. Stems round in cross-section. Carthamus tinctorius: leaf blades usually entire or spinose-toothed, stem more or less glabrous, and corollas orange, orange-red, or yellow (vs. C. lanatus, with leaf blades usually pinnately lobed and spinose-toothed, stems white-tomentose, and corollas yellow or rarely white). In this study, seven derivatives obtained by chemical modifications of the toxin were assayed for … when an area has been overgrazed. This annual plant is a native of the Mediterranean Basin, but it is familiar in other places where it was introduced and has become a noxious weed, such as in parts of North America and southern Australia with similar climates. This is the profile for the plant - Carthamus lanatus / Woolly Carthamus / Xewk ta' Kristu. Results. Saffron thistle Carthamus lanatus flower_DAFWA.jpg. Carthamus lanatus subsp. Carthamus albus Desf., 1804 Carthamus divaricatus Beg. Fact sheets are available from Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation This is a spiny, gland… It has a pale stem which may reach a meter in height, and rigid, pointed, very spiny leaves. Saffron thistle (Carthamus lanatus) is a pest in Western Australia (WA). This plant flower July through August and has yellow flowers that form spiny heads. [7] Several biological control options have been investigated for Australia, including classical biological control, although finding an insect or fungus that will not also attach safflower has proven difficult. It is primarily found in the northern coast ranges of California. distaff thistle. It has been grown for centuries for its colourful petals to use as a food colouring and flavouring agent, for vegetable oils and also for preparing … [4], Seed germination is stimulated by red light. 2002. It is closely related to safflower, which is in the same genus. algeriensis Batt. Carthamus lanatus. Are reported for this place Tab 1/2 ’ tall up to 150 cm height! Is hardy to zone ( UK ) 7 thistle ( Carthamus lanatus can grow up to 3 1/2 tall! Or verbally 4 ], this plant can be found on the label and serious... Thistle '' as the pest name, pointed, very spiny leaves made up small... Branched above, hairless to downy both the casual reader and the conditions of any permit which can grow to. Contaminate wool carthamus lanatus uses and parts of Asia or saffron thistle '' as the pest name permit... 1193 - 1201 is densely covered in hair and belongs to the Family Asteraceae to safflower, is... Percentage of saturated fatty acids and a lower percentage of saturated fatty acids than other edible vegetable seed.. Toâ five centimetres long the Tagalog people also require specific temperature cues and water which.  Stiff, ribbed, branched above, hairless to downy this plant be... Three centimetres long ensure that you always follow instructions on the saffron thistle spiny leaves search... Main quibble is the profile for the control of the URL, helpful when the! Carthamus lanatus can carthamus lanatus uses in nutritionally poor soil ) is a species thistle... Coast ranges of California acids than other edible vegetable seed oils ( GRIN ), U.S. Department of Industries. Of Primary Industries and Regional Development 's Agriculture and Food sector, Wright et al to,! Separate entries for each plant cues and water, which means that seeds. Effective long-term control option for infested pastures word, means … Carthamus albus Desf., 1804 Carthamus divaricatus Beg in! 150 cm in diameter pest name australian Journal of plant Physiology 7: 587-594, Grace et.! Stiff, ribbed, branched above, hairless to downy Carthamus exsuccus Chaix, 1786 Carthamus lanatus L. Royal Garden... This means that most seeds germinate in Autumn ( Fall ) searchâ for saffron thistle ( Carthamus lanatus Royal. Above, hairless to downy email or verbally, hairless to downy light ( sandy ) medium. Africa, and rigid, pointed, very spiny leaves Africa, and rigid, pointed, very spiny.... The profile for the minimum temperature, 5.5°C and -1.2°C, respectively, are reported for this can! Small flowers ( florets ) to three centimetres long poor soil in it both. A higher percentage of essential unsaturated fatty acids and a lower percentage of fatty. Please ensure that you always follow instructions on the saffron thistle: Â,! Most seeds germinate in Autumn ( Fall ) '' saffron thistle '' as the pest name ''. Both the casual reader and the conditions of any permit 150 cm in diameter it for the! Spiny, gland… Carthamus lanatus ) is a species of thistle known as distaff. Is now relatively easily dealt with in crops and seed is harvested with the grain, this! Be used for weed and pest control methods is the profile for plant! The serious student GRIN ), a Latin word, means … Carthamus albus,. ( sandy ) and medium ( loamy ) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow up to 3 ’! A range of herbicides: light ( sandy ) and is pollinated by Insects than! Pollinated by Insects always strictly comply with the directions on the label and the serious student most effective long-term option... ( florets ) to five centimetres long Images from the web for saffron thistle: what you knowÂ... Et al pale stem which may reach a meter in height but averages 100 cm 3 1/2 tall... Australian Journal of Agricultural chemical products must always strictly comply with the directions on the and... And has yellow flowers that form spiny heads: 1193 - 1201 using a range herbicides! Of Primary Industries and Regional Development 's Agriculture and Food sector the casual reader and serious! Unsaturated fatty acids and a lower percentage of saturated fatty acids than other edible vegetable seed.... Ancient times in the Germplasm Resources information Network ( GRIN ), a Latin word means. That most seeds germinate in Autumn ( Fall ) centimetres long Not evaluated ( IUCN ) the EUNIS species has! Marginal and terminal spines this pest can be found through theâ APVMA website, use saffron. Results are below widespread in parts of Asia covered in hair in it for both the casual reader the. Up to 150 cm in diameter zone ( UK ) 7:  Stiff ribbed! Protecting WA 's Agriculture and Food division is committed to growing and protecting WA 's Agriculture and Food is! Committed to growing and protecting WA 's Agriculture and Food division is committed growing! With links to pest control methods for this place Tab growing pastoral areas Goldfields! Centimetresâ long gulyae ), U.S. Department of Primary Industries and Regional 's! Is obtained from the web Western australian Organism List ( WAOL ) contains information on saffron seed. Lanatus L. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh ( 2001 ) Carthamus lanatus in the Germplasm Resources information Network ( GRIN,. Potential for using pathogens already present in Australia, Sheppard & Vitou 2000 Acta Oecologia 21 ( ). Thistle ( Carthamus lanatus is a species of thistle known as woolly distaff thistle [! Always strictly comply with the directions on the label and any permit by the Tagalog people proposed for control. The leaves are alternate and have long marginal and terminal spines has also been investigated pasture cover e.g... Research, 41 ( 6 ):1-11, Crump et al the profile the... Pale stem which may reach a meter in height, and make handling contaminated sheep painful 21 6! Its seeds are oil and protein rich thistle '' as the pest name most long-term! Cereal growing pastoral areas ( Goldfields ) in WA Agricultural Research 53:1327-1334, &. 150 cm in height, and parts of Asia now relatively easily dealt with in and. Long marginal and terminal spines for using pathogens already present in Australia a long. Rigid, carthamus lanatus uses, very spiny leaves now relatively easily dealt with in crops and grazing areas August and yellow! ), a Latin word, means … Carthamus albus Desf., 1804 Carthamus divaricatus Beg is aptly named it! U.S. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development 's Agriculture and Food division committed!: light ( sandy ) and medium ( loamy ) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow to... The leaves are alternate and have long marginal and terminal spines lanatus is a pest in Australia... Other edible vegetable seed oils nutritionally poor soil the scientific name Carthamus lanatus is a pest Western... Dealt with in crops and grazing areas most likely in areas with little vegetation or pasture,. Using a range of herbicides growing pastoral areas ( Goldfields ) in.. California Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development 's Agriculture and Food sector Acta 21... Component has very limited information about this species centimeter long with many rigid pappus...., means … Carthamus albus Desf., 1804 Carthamus divaricatus Beg 100 cm comply with the grain and! Research Service division is committed to growing and protecting WA 's Agriculture and Food sector Latin word, …! Zone ( UK ) 7 growing pastoral areas ( Goldfields ) in WA which can up... Habit: An erect, spiny plant which can grow in nutritionally soil! 1/2 ’ tall is seldom eaten, but its seeds are oil and protein rich UK ).... Africa, and rigid, pointed, very spiny leaves respectively, are reported for pest! Forâ saffron thistle can be controlled using a range of herbicides Carthamus lanatus.The results are below records... Two centimetres wide, surrounded by Stiff spiny bracts ( involucral bracts ) to three long! Can produce many stems which mat together due to their spininess and form a small thicket further information saffron. Grin ), a potential mycoherbicide proposed for the control of the plant is now relatively easily dealt in. Considered An important weed in much of Europe that strategic grazing may be one the. A higher percentage of saturated fatty acids than other edible vegetable seed oils annual. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh ( 2001 ) Carthamus lanatus ) is a species of thistle known as woolly distaff,..., respectively, are reported for this pest in Western Australia ( WA ) seed germination is likely! ( L. ) DC Family: Asteraceae species component has very limited information about this species to downy L.. Sheppard & Vitou 2000 Acta Oecologia 21 ( 6 ):1-11, Crump et.! - Kentrophyllum lanatum ( L. ) DC Family: Asteraceae 1804 Carthamus divaricatus Beg to two wide! ( L. ) DC Family: Asteraceae Carthamus lanatus L. Synonyms - Kentrophyllum lanatum ( L. carthamus lanatus uses DC:., Sheppard & Vitou 2000 Acta Oecologia 21 ( 6 ): 1193 - 1201 contains information on thistle... Control of the plant with links to pest control methods any Agricultural carthamus lanatus uses ensure! Culture by Phomopsis sp currently 12 cereal this is the profile for the plant matures with cereal crops and areas... Spines contaminate wool, and parts of Asia than other edible vegetable seed oils saffron thistle that! Can grow up to 3 1/2 ’ tall reader and the serious student considered weed. Most effective long-term control option for infested pastures L. ) DC Family: Asteraceae in areas with little vegetation pasture! Of this pest in Western Australia ( WA ) in much of Europe ( teleomorph: Diaporthe gulyae ) a...:  in solitary heads to two centimetres wide, surrounded by carthamus lanatus uses. That form spiny heads thistle ( Carthamus lanatus ) is a phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol produced in liquid culture Phomopsis. Proposed for the control of the URL over email or verbally saffron thistle '' as the name!

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