hellenistic era definition

Relating to Greek history, language, and culture from the death of Alexander the Great to the defeat of Cleopatra and Mark Antony by Octavian in 31 BC. ○   Lettris Desultory conflicts with Thebes and Athens continued for another decade, but in 338 BC Philip defeated a Theban and Athenian army at the Battle of Chaeronea. The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata. Hellenistic period - Topic:Fine arts - Online Encyclopedia - What is what? [2], The Hellenistic period was characterized by a wave of colonists who established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. Soon afterwards the Greco-Bactrian kingdom seems to have expanded, possibly taking advantage of the defeat of the Parthian king Arsaces II by Antiochus. The admixtures of different cultures, the major conflicts and -in fact- the decomposition of the single kingdom, set the basis for multiple transformations and new shapes. the Hellenistic Period is characterized by a split Of Alexander's former empire, with endless wars between the Diadochi and their successors. A form of Judaism in classical antiquity that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture Part of a series on Jews and Judaism In the aftermath, Philip formed the League of Corinth, effectively bringing the majority of Greece under his direct sway. From the 4th century BC on, new types of oared warships appeared in the Mediterranean Sea, superseding the trireme and transforming naval warfare. It usually means primarily the culture of Athens and the related cities English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU). Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Hellenistic_Period/. man must except his fate and live a life of duty and self-cont… The conquered lands included Asia Minor, Assyria, the Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Media, Persia, and parts of modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the steppes of central Asia. Beginning after the conquests of Alexander the Great, the period experienced prosperity and progress in the decorative and visual arts, exploration, literature, sculpture, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, and science. https://www.ancient.eu/Hellenistic_Period/. Hellenistic civilization. It is probable that at this point that the Greco-Bactrian kingdom split into several semi-independent regions for some years; Euthydemus II (son of Demetrius?) However, his murder in 145 BC triggered a civil war which fatally weakened the kingdom as his sons Eucratides II and Heliocles I fought each other. Succeeding his father, Alexander took over the Persian war himself. Spartan hegemony was succeeded by a Theban one after the Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), but after the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC), all of Greece was so weakened that no one state could claim pre-eminence. 2. Holland, T. an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc. During the Hellenistic-Roman philosophy in question, the four major schools of philosophy were Epicurianism, Stoicism, Septicism and Neo-Platonism , respectively. At around the same time, the re-emergence of a native Persian dynasty under the Parthian king Arsaces effectively cut the nascent Greco-Bactrian kingdom off from the rest of the Seleucid empire. 34 sentence examples: 1. ), "Cultural links between India and the Greco-Roman world", Waterloo Institute for Hellenistic Studies, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hellenistic_period&oldid=497440939, incorporated a part of the Roman Province of. Hellenic definition is - of or relating to Greece, its people, or its language; specifically : of or relating to ancient Greek history, culture, or art before the Hellenistic period. This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. Though they produced some statuary in Classical and Hellenistic styles they were not copyists. With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. It usually means primarily the culture of Athens and the related cities during the Age of Pericles. Green P. Alexander The Great and the Hellenistic Age, p. xiii. This era was marked by a great deal of progress, particularly in the field of After his death, the huge territories Alexander had conquered became subject to a strong Greek influence (hellenization) for the next two or three centuries, until the rise of Rome in the west, and of Parthia in the east. The Attalid dynasty of Pergamum lasted little longer; a Roman ally until the end, its final king Attalus III died in 133 BC without an heir, and taking the alliance to its natural conclusion, willed Pergamum to the Roman Republic.[9]. [8] The Romans, also allied with the Aetolian League of Greek city-states (which resented Philip's power), thus declared war on Macedon in 200 BC, starting the Second Macedonian War. ○   Anagrams Maintains the website From Bactria to Taxila. This Roman-Greek interaction began as a consequence of the Greek city-states located along the coast of southern Italy. Ancient History Encyclopedia. This period showed progress in architecture, a lot of great euergetism (altruistic donations to the community), a multiplication of feast days and celebrations (shown by the great number of created theatres), the development of art and the creation of libraries, with the most famous being in Alexandria. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 28 Apr 2011. Alexander’s pothos, or yearning for something unattained, was a mood that became expressed in the art. The Seleucid Antiochus III had allied with Philip V of Macedon in 203 BC, agreeing that they should jointly conquer the lands of the boy-king of Egypt, Ptolemy V. After defeating Ptolemy in the Fifth Syrian War, Antiochus concentrated on occupying the Ptolemaic possessions in Asia Minor. Hellenistic Period. It can be argued that some of the changes across the Macedonian Empire after Alexander's conquests and during the rule of the Diadochi would have occurred without the influence of Greek rule. Choose from 168 different sets of hellenistic era flashcards on Quizlet. Philip took every opportunity to expand Macedonian territory, and in 352 BC annexed Thessaly and Magnesia. Many supposed kings in India are known only because of coins bearing their name. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization.  |  He ruled over not only Babylonia, but the entire enormous eastern part of Alexander's empire: The Greek kingdom of Bactria (or Greco-Bactrian kingdom) began as an offshoot of the Seleucid empire. Ro, Cookies help us deliver our services. Rome had come to dominate the Italian peninsula, and desired the submission of the Greek cities to its rule. Usually taken to begin with the death of Alexander in 323 BC, the Hellenistic period may be seen to end either with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by Rome in 146 BC or with the final defeat of the last remaining successor-state to Alexander's empire after the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. As the Greek and eastern cultures mingled, the development of a hybrid Hellenistic culture began, and persisted even when isolated from the main centres of Greek culture (for instance, in the Greco-Bactrian kingdom). Thus the Hellenistic kingdoms weakened themselves and thus gradually created space for competing kingdoms, such as Pontus or Bactria. Kingdoms of the Diadochi after the battle of Ipsus, circa 301 BC. The major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. The Greek population and the native population did not mix; the Greeks moved and brought their own culture, but interaction did not always occur. He fought with the Indo-Greeks, and appears to have occupied India up to the river Indus for a while. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. The kingdom grew to its largest extent under Mithridates VI the great, who conquered Colchis, Cappadocia, Bithynia, Lesser Armenia, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos and for a brief time the Roman province of Asia. Instead of contemplating and debating ideals, logic, extinguished emotion, or consumma… The Hellenistic period or Hellenistic civilization is the period of ancient Greek and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt in 30 BC. Ancient History Encyclopedia. In the endless northern steppes of Asia, nomad pressures continued in a similar way as before, Sarmatians pressuring Scythes and Yuezhei pressuring Sakas, who increased so their attacks against the Bactrian and then Indo-Greek kingdoms. Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more. [1] Eventually, instability in the near east resulting from the power vacuum left by the collapse of the Seleucid empire caused the Roman proconsul Pompey the Great to abolish the Seleucid rump state, absorbing much of Syria into the Roman republic. Information and translations of hellenistic-era warships in the most comprehensive Choose the design that fits your site. Specific areas conquered by Alexander's invading army, including Egypt and areas of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia "fell" willingly to conquest and viewed Alexander as more of a liberator than a victor.[5]. A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. In another twenty years, the Macedonian kingdom was no more. Hellenistic-era warships The famous 2nd century BC Nike of Samothrace, standing atop the prow of an oared warship, most probably a trihemiolia. The Kingdom of Pontus was a Hellenistic kingdom on the southern coast of the Black Sea. Hellenistic philosophy went through a peculiar evolution—or retrogression, it might almost be better to say. The ordinary methods of Hellenistic ethnography would have been sufficient. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites ! Written by Antoine Simonin, published on 28 April 2011 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Most English definitions are provided by WordNet . As a result, in an attempt to reduce Roman influence in the Balkans, Philip allied himself with Carthage after Hannibal had dealt the Romans a massive defeat at the Battle of Cannae (216 BC) during the Second Punic War. He was elected Hegemon of the league, and a campaign against the Achaemenid Empire of Persia was planned. The English word games are: The growing pressure of the Celts' neighbours, though, especially from Germanic Tribes and the Romans, reduced their dominion drastically at the end of the period. Arnaldo Monigliano, an Italian Jew who wrote before and after the Second World War, studied the problem of mutual understanding between races in the conquered areas. The Hellenistic Period is a part of the Ancient Period for the European and Near Asian space. In consequence, the Hellenistic Period is usually accepted to begin in 323 BCE with Alexander's death and ends in 31 BCE with the conquest of the last Hellenistic kingdom by Rome, the Lagid kingdom of Egypt. However, Greek urban civilisation seems to have continued in Bactria after the fall of the kingdom, having a hellenising effect on the tribes which had displaced Greek-rule. The independent cities of Magna Graecia did not form part of the Hellenistic domains and had, by this time, been eclipsed in power by the Hellenistic kingdoms of the east. Whilst victorious in the field, it seems Antiochus came to realise that there were advantages in the status quo (perhaps sensing that Bactria could not be governed from Syria), and married one of his daughters to Euthydemus's son, thus legitimising Greco-Bactria. For the Asian part, we could lengthen it to 10 BCE, when the last Indo-Greek kingdom was conquered by Indo-Sakas. English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID). Typically, historians start the Hellenistic Age with the death of Alexander, whose empire spread from India to Africa, in 323 B.C. The exact justification for the invasion remains unclear, but by about 175 BC, the Greeks ruled over parts of north-western India. In 305 BC, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter" (saviour). Everything you always wanted to know Hellenistic period definition The Hellenistic period was the last stage of Hellenic art (Alexandrian art) and is generally thought to have started with the end of Alexander the Great's reign. Instead of contemplating and debating ideals, logic, extinguished emotion, or consummate beauty, people would explore and analyze reality.[4]. emerged as the dominant philosophies of the era, and the first three of them were in serious competition among themselves. The separation of the Indo-Greek kingdom from the Greco-Bactrian kingdom resulted in an even more isolated position from the west, and thus the details of the Indo-Greek kingdom are even more obscure than for Bactria. Once the Second Punic War had been resolved, and the Romans had begun to regather their strength, they looked to re-assert their influence in the Balkans, and to curb the expansion of Philip. Hellenistic is listed in the World's largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms Hellenistic - What does Hellenistic stand for? Diodotus II, son of Diodotus, was overthrown in about 230 BC by Euthydemus, possibly the satrap of Sogdiana, who then started his own dynasty. The treaty of Apamea Kibotos. Sailing from Polis to Empire: Ships in the Eastern Mediterranean during... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The focus on the Hellenistic period over the course of the 19th century by scholars and historians has led to an issue common to the study of historical periods; historians see the period of focus as a mirror of the period in which they are living. Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata. After the death of Menander (c. 130 BC), the Kingdom appears to have fragmented, with several 'kings' attested contemporaneously in different regions. [1] Meanwhile, in mainland Greece, the Aetolian League, which had sided with Rome against Macedon, now grew to resent the Roman presence in Greece. It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decline or decadence,[1] between the brilliance of the Greek Classical era and the emergence of the Roman Empire. Like most Roman peace treaties of the period, the resultant 'Peace of Flaminius' was designed utterly to crush the power of the defeated party; a massive indemnity was levied, Philip's fleet was surrendered to Rome, and Macedon was effectively returned to its ancient boundaries, losing influence over the city-states of southern Greece, and land in Thrace and Asia Minor. Cite This Work Roman entanglement in the Balkans began, as so often, with trade. A pretext for war was provided by Philip's refusal to end his war with Attalid Pergamum, and Rhodes, both Roman allies.  |  Moreso, it is the basic idea of administration which changed: It was no longer a matter of managing the civic affairs in the name of the community, but by delegation in the name of one personal authority. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Alexander The Great and the Hellenistic Age, p 98-99. In around 250 BC, the governor of Bactria, Sogdiana and Margiana, one Diodotus, took this process to its logical extreme and declared himself king. Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Macedon was located at the periphery of the Greek world, and although its royal family claimed Greek descent, the Macedonians themselves were looked down upon as semi-barbaric by the Greeks. [3], The Hellenistic period emerged, approximately, 323-30BC. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Web. "Hellenistic Period." In the License. However, whilst this campaign was in its early stages, he was assassinated (possibly at the instigation of his son Alexander).[1]. Passionate about ancient Central Asia. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. However, Macedon had a relatively strong and centralised government, and compared to most Greek states, directly controlled a large area. Seleucus established himself in Babylon in 312 BC, used as the foundation date of the Seleucid Empire. Works in the Europa Barbarorum project. 3. Simonin, A. Contrarily, having so firmly intricated themselves into Greek affairs, the Romans now completely ignored the rapidly disintegrating Seleucid empire (perhaps because it posed no threat); and left the Ptolemaic kingdom to decline quietly, whilst acting as a protector of sorts, in as much as to stop other powers taking Egypt over (including the famous line-in-the-sand incident when the Seleucid Antiochus IV Epiphanes tried to invade Egypt). As mentioned, Apollodotus made himself king of 'India' in around 170 BC. Greek mathematics and astronomy reached a rather advanced stage during Hellenism, represented by scholars such as Hipparchus from … The numismatic evidence together with archaeological finds and the scant historical records suggest that the fusion of eastern and western cultures reached its peak in the Indo-Greek kingdom. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. This inevitably weakened the Greek position, and territory seems to have been lost progressively. Hellenistic Era age meaning "to imitate Greeks" - saw the expansion of the Greek language and ideas to the non-Greek world of Southwest Asia and beyond. After the defeat of Anthony and his lover, the last Ptolemaic monarch, Cleopatra VII at the Battle of Actium, Augustus invaded Egypt and took it as his own personal fiefdom. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. ○   Boggle. Initially the whole empire was divided amongst them; however, some territories were lost relatively quickly, or only remained nominally under Macedonian rule. Books Demetrius, son and successor of Euthydemus, invaded north-western India in 180 BC, after the destruction of the Mauryan empire there; the Mauryans were probably allies of the Bactrians (and Seleucids). Peace and alliance is established between the, The Hellenistic Period: Historical Sources in Translation. Related Content When the territories were divided between Alexander's generals at the Partition of Babylon in 323 BC Seleucus received Babylonia, and from that point continued to expand his dominions ruthlessly. However, this brought Antiochus into conflict with Rhodes and Pergamum, two important Roman allies, and began a 'cold war' between Rome and Antiochus (not helped by the presence of Hannibal at the Seleucid court). The end result was the complete conquest of Sicily, including its previously powerful Greek cities, by the Romans. [9] He thereby completed both the destruction of the Hellenistic kingdoms and the Roman republic, and ended (in hindsight) the Hellenistic era. In about 155 (or 165) BC he seems to have been succeeded by the most successful of the Indo-Greek kings, Menander I. Menander converted to Buddhism, and seems to have been a great patron of the religion; he is remembered in some Buddhist texts as 'Milinda'. The events which, in retrospect, marked the beginning of the end for the Hellenistic kingdoms could have been avoided; even if it seems likely that a collision between them and Rome would have ultimately occurred. Another crippling treaty followed, with Seleucid possessions in Asia Minor removed and given to Rhodes and Pergamum, the size of the Seleucid navy reduced, and a massive war indemnity invoked. New York: Modern Library Chronicles, 2007. Recently, however, papyrologist C. Préaux has concentrated predominantly on the economic system, interactions between kings and cities and provides a generally pessimistic view on the period. Meaning of hellenistic-era warships. Green, P. Rubicon: Triumph and Tragedy in the Roman Republic. Michael Rostovtzeff, who fled the Russian Revolution, concentrated predominantly on the rise of the capitalist bourgeoisie in areas of Greek rule. Architecture during the Hellenistic period focused on theatricality and drama; the period also saw an increased popularity of the Corinthian order. This presented Antiochus III with a pretext to invade Greece and 'liberate' it from Roman influence, thus starting the Roman-Syrian War (192–188 BC). and i think that the most important centre of learning during this period was Alexandria in Egypt, which attracted scholars from across the Hellenistic world, including Greek, Egyptian, Jewish, Persian, Phoenician and even Indianscholars. Similarly, in India, the general Apollodotus I seems to have assumed more-or-less complete power by around 170 BC, thereby marking the true start of the Indo-Greek kingdom (see below). Come in here. After a long struggle with Rome in the Mithridatic wars, Pontus was defeated, part of it was incorporated into the Roman Republic as the province Bithynia and Pontus and the eastern half survived as a client kingdom. For centuries after the demise of the Indo-Greek kingdom, Greek civilization influenced Indian culture, art, and language. It may not have been reviewed by professional editors (see full disclaimer). Seeking to re-assert Macedonian power and Greek independence, Philip V's son Perseus incurred the wrath of the Romans, resulting in the Third Macedonian War (171-168 BC). The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search. It was then that Octavian, who later became Augustus Caesar , defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra and made Greece a part of the new Roman Empire. At the same time, mercenaries were more frequently used in Hellenistic armies, in order to face the military and technical evolution which greatly increased the cost for equip a civic army. Shortly afterwards, Rome became involved in Sicily, fighting against the Carthaginans in the First Punic War. Widespread Roman interference in the Greek world was probably inevitable given the general manner of the ascendency of the Roman Republic. Each square carries a letter. Change the target language to find translations. The use of this period is justified by the extent of the Hellenic culture in most of these areas, due to the Greek political presence especially in Asia after Alexander's conquests, but also to a new wave of Greek colonization. Peter Green, on the other hand, writes from the point of view of late 20th century liberalism, his focus being on individualism, the breakdown of convention, experiments and a postmodern disillusionment with all institutions and political processes.[5]. During this period Greek culture flourished, spreading through the Mediterranean and into the Near East and Asia and centering on Alexandria in Egypt and Pergamum in Turkey. Her suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt. Look it up now! The Hellenistic period or Hellenistic era of history is the period which followed the conquests of Alexander the Great. The resulting Indo-Scythian kingdom seems to have gradually pushed the remaining Indo-Greek kingdom towards the east. The sheer size of the eastern Seleucid domains must mean that the satraps governing the provinces had significant freedom from central control. Ancient History Encyclopedia. of or relating to the architecture of Greece and Greek territories from the late 3rd century through the 1st century b.c., characterized by deviations of various sorts from the proportions and arrangements of the mature Greek orders, particularly in the attenuation of the Doric order, and by … Find out more. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. The Hellenistic era experienced an age of eclecticism, a new awakening of the diverse knowledge and theories present in Greek culture. Alexander The Great and the Hellenistic Age. This ended with a decisive Roman victory at the Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC). Hellenistic Art: History, Facts, and Characteristics The Hellenistic Period witnessed the glory and power of the Greek Empire reaching its zenith. "Hellenistic Period." All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Another decisive Roman victory at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC) saw the defeat of Antiochus. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Around 70 BC, the western regions of Arachosia and Paropamisadae were lost to tribal invasions, presumably by those tribes responsible for the end of the Bactrian kingdom. After the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), Greece had fallen under a Spartan hegemony, in which Sparta was pre-eminent but not all-powerful. The Hellenistic period emerged, approximately, 323-30BC. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame ! 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Interference in the United kingdom League of Corinth, effectively bringing the of... Bc ; numismatic evidence suggest the existence of several other kings shortly thereafter Pontus was ruler... Crossword ○ Lettris ○ Boggle a strong and centralised government, and to. Integral dictionary ( TID ) Stephen king, “Listen, by the historian G.... Satraps governing the provinces had significant freedom from central control cities, the! Family ruled Egypt until the Roman Republic and lasted until its conquest by the Greek position, territory... For competing kingdoms, c. 303 BCE come to dominate the Italian peninsula and. Considerable importance increasingly dominated by 'great powers ' abbreviations and acronyms Hellenistic - What is?. The Indo-Greeks, and Rhodes, both Roman allies map of the conquered world were more affected the. Up to the river Indus for a while to Empire: Ships in the Definitions.net dictionary later known ``... 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From Wikipedia, the Greeks ruled over parts of north-western India Hellenistic stand for is the Period which followed conquests! Family ruled Egypt until the Roman Republic a rise to power over Greece them easy obvious! 'S generals and successors to Parthia in the Roman Republic in 63 BC ( TID ) the capitalist bourgeoisie areas. 301 BC ) claim the Bactrian lands enough to deter Roman aggression non-profit company in! 190 BC ) addition, much of the Greek city-states located along coast!, Greek cultural influence and power was at its maximum extent ( c.180 BC ) proximity to Rome had. States remained, [ 2 ] until the conquest of Sicily, fighting against the Achaemenid Empire of was. Licensing terms english word games are: ○ Anagrams ○ Wildcard, crossword ○ Lettris Boggle!, pornographic, injurious, etc Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters their... Choose from 168 different sets of Hellenistic era came in 31 BCE the name Ptolemy he himself. 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