testing hay for sugar content

“Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS)” uses light transmitted through the sample to estimate the components of the feed. Non-Structural Carbohydrates (NSC)-- the total amount of sugar, starch, and fructan. A proper hay would be a prairie hay or a second- or third-cutting of alfalfa hay processed after the bloom stage. Individual producers, agriservice personnel, consultants, veterinarians, universities, and zoos are among the many types of people and organizations satisfying their analytical needs at Dairy One. The new category for sugar content of hay/fresh grass is called ESC (ethanol soluble carbohydrate, also called Simple Sugars), referring to sugars and a partial amount of fructans. As an international leader, our goal is to provide you with analytical services designed to meet the expanding demands of modern agriculture. “A List of Analytical Laboratories Serving Oregon (EM 8677)” contains contact information for labs that analyze forage samples. Every day, samples arrive at the lab from around the globe. Pulling hand-grab samples from the standing forage. Alfalfa Hay Averages: % WSC 9.3 ± 1.9 ; Grass Hay Averages: % WSC 11.6 ± 4.6 ; Ethanol-Soluble Carbohydrates (ESC) - The assay extracts simple sugars, disaccharides, and oligosaccharides, including some fructans, but should minimize the extraction of polysaccharides. State & National Extension Partners, Equine Science of the same type of feed. Often times you can borrow a hay probe from your local extension office. Dec 2019 | However, most hays have values 5 to 10 points or more higher than these desired levels. A sample is obtained by drilling with a brace. Article. Chris Schachtschneider | Growing Farms: An Introduction to Pasture and Grazing Management is a free online course for livestock producers. To compensate, more hay needs to be consumed. It should be tested. The probe should have a diameter of 3/8 to 3/4 inch. You may also choose to purchase your own hay … A hay probe is the only way to obtain a representative sample from individual bales of hay. Accuracy depends largely on the sampling method and lab technique. Penn State Forage Sampler probes can be ordered from Nasco, 901 Janesville Avenue, P.O. It is made of stainless steel with a replaceable hardened steel cutting tip. The most accurate samples are obtained with the use of a forage sampling probe. An older method of obtaining forage samples is the hand grab technique. What do I need to take a hay sample? News story. Testing hay and haylage is crucial for horses prone to laminitis as the only way to tell if the sugar and starch level … Plants causing liver disease and photosensitization (sensitivity to sunlight) are often grouped together, as photosensitivity is often a secondary symptom of liver disease cause by poisonous plants. FeedTest is a hay, silage and livestock feed testing laboratory operated by Agrifood Technology with free sample kits, including pre-paid postage for samples available, FeedTest delivers rapid, accurate test results. The sample should be representative of the hay composition. Lab fees start around $30 per sample and increase depending on the analyses requested. Featured question. The difference is the approximate percentage of the fructan in your hay sample. In those cases, test hay for levels of sugar and starch because these are the highly absorbable carbohydrates in the diet that quickly raise the blood sugar and the insulin levels. The probe must be disassembled and emptied between each core. The best technique for sampling baled hay is to use a mechanical coring probe. We have had a horse grazing on our approx. Having dependable samples can prevent unwelcome surprises. New technology an… Sampling methods include: Rapid feeding and turnover of grains and supplements may reduce the value of analyses compared to analyzing larger batches fed over a longer period of time. These plants are not generally palatable and are typically avoided. Buy probes and meters to accurately test hay and grain moisture content to control mold and assess nutritional value. However, some Clover hays have thick stems which leads to a higher fibre content and hence reduces the overall RFV. Cardiac glycosides are the most common toxin affecting cardiovascular health. Iowa State University of Science and Technology. About ½ gallon of sample (forage or grain) should be submitted for an adequate test. The estimates use mathematical equations based on previous wet chemistry data. This warm-season grass measures at the low end of the normal range for ethanol soluble carbohydrates, measuring between 4.7 percent and 10.9 percent. Pulling hand-grab samples from bales or windrows. TLS recommends having ESC analysed, rather than "sugar… Light rain has an upside. Tropical grasses don’t contain fructans and tend to have lower sugar content, so hay made in the south may be more suitable, but you will be paying a lot in freight to get it up north. The process is repeated on several hay bales within the sampling lot. May 18, 2020 | It is a subset of WSC. Here is a link to a great hay testing lab, Equi-Analytical. In general, when is the ... Shelby Filley | This group of plants contain cyanogenic glycosides that are converted to hydrogen cyanide or prussic acid when the plant cells are damaged. WSC plus starch = NSC. Extension adapters are available for deeper sampling. But, if I hadn’t tested, I would have soaked it anyway… and you can tell if hay is loaded with sugar by the amount of brown in the water – and how fast the water turns brown. I certainly wouldn’t aim to have freshly cut hay get rained on but if yours … 6 acre field which is normally cut for mixed grass hay. The non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration in hay is a general measurement of the sugar, starch and fructan concentration in forage. The sugar keeps accumulating because the grass can’t use it up.” Testing Grass If … 2150 Beardshear Hall, Ames, IA 50011-2031 (800) 262-3804, Iowa State University | For round bales, take a sample from each side of the bale. Iowa State University of Science and Technology. Remember: the keys to an accurate sampling of feed are to sample consistently and mix the samples thoroughly, especially if you plan to divide them. Some plants absorb excess nitrates or oxalates from the soil and store them in plant tissues. Hay Testing for Horses Hay is the foundation of a good nutrition program Back Hay is the foundation of a good nutrition program, but horse owners are often left to the sight, smell and touch of hay to “make general assumptions” about its quality. 18.4 + .5 = 18.9 High sugars and starch. Brix is a measurement of sugars in a plant. Brown = sugar. Protein hay can be a great alternative to feeding hay. Horses with insulin resistance, equine metabolic syndrome, or those that are overweight will need a cured forage with a sugar and starch content below 10%. The nutrient content of feeds varies among feed types but also with different batches (hay lots, grain shipments, growth stage of pasture, etc.) The sugar content of feeds and hay is evaluated based on the starch and ethanol soluble carbohydrate -- also called simple sugars -- content. This method is a well-recognized and accepted way to measure the components of feed. That hay that was cut after high noon will burn down that available sugar to about 2% above standard. Due to the increased cost associated with nonstandard analyses, these should only be requested when truly needed. Mylen Bohle, David Hannaway, Andy Hulting, Karin Neff | Explore our site to learn more about analyzing your feeds and how to use this information to properly balance your horse's diet. Dec 2019 | forage management , hay, irrigation, feeding values, forage types, forage anti-quality factors, leasing pastures and more. This group of plants contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are the most common cause of liver damage, but also can cause kidney damage, heart failure, cancer and photosensitization. Push the sharp tip 12 to 18 inches into the bale at a 90-degree angle. The Dairy One Forage Lab excels in providing you with high quality analyses and customer service. Hay – Obtain samples from about 10 percent of the bales in each lot of hay. Livestock prefer the higher sugar content and will eat the hay better than hay cut just after dew burn off. Hand samples do not provide consistently reliable results. Ask the lab to run the required analyses to give you this basic information. Having dependable samples can prevent unwelcome surprises. The sample should be as representative of the composition of the hay bales as possible. I figure my hay at 3 PM the sugar content will be 4% higher. As a last resort, up to 30% of the sugar content … We send samples for nutritional analysis to the United States of America because at this time no lab in the UK is carrying out appropriate analysis of sugar and starch for determining forage suitability for horses, particularly those with a metabolic state (good doer) which might mean that they are laminitis prone. Ask an Expert is a way for you to get answers from the Oregon State University Extension Service. Prices and sample submission guidelines may differ among laboratories. Article. Testing is a good starting point for determining sugar content in hay, but caution should be used to ensure that a representative sample is taken. Oct 2018 | Just looking at a forage sample or knowing the species will not give you an estimate of sugar content. Announcements on educational programs and important news & notices for western Oregon producers of beef cattle, sheep and goats, plus forages to support these livestock. Annual event included classes ranging from composting to water rights and well-water management, and small engine maintenance to wildlife management. of the same type of feed. A proper hay would be a prairie hay or a second or third cutting of alfalfa hay processed after the bloom stage. just after sunrise is as low as the "sugar" content will be all day. Our mission is to provide the horse industry with quality forage and feed analyses. Colour – The ideal colour for hay is a bright green colour. Policies E-mail: [email protected], Copyright © 1995-var d = new Date(); var n = d.getFullYear(); document.write(n); 119 Kildee, Animal Science Generally all parts of the plant are highly toxic and lethal if eaten in small quantities. Testing the must for sugar content, PH, and TA 05/09/2012. While there have been some conflicting research results, washing hay for 30 to 60 minutes in cold or preferably hot water can reduce the sugar content of some hay. This can be easily solved by allowing your horse to have free access to hay 24 hours a day. This was Meadow Grass hay I … Shelby Filley | Be sure and discuss the use of wet chemistry vs. NIRS with your county Extension faculty, nutrition consultant or analytical lab before you decide which method to use. Other analyses are nitrate nitrogen and trace mineral composition. Collection. Even … But you cannot tell the sugar content by type of hay or a particular cutting of hay. Shelby Filley | Some labs can run wet chemistry samples overnight, but others take longer. If you need to get grass or hay tested for sugar content, proper sample selection and handling goes a long way to make your test results more accurate and trustworthy. This is a report on a research project where the objectives were to determine whether grazing cow-calf pairs on warm season grasses and brassica pastures would extend the grazing season and positively affect calf weaning weights, feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and ranch profitability. Some grasses can be palatable when young, but can cause injury to the nose, eyes, mouth and ears of grazing animals when plants mature with long awns. This is usually the round side of a round hay bale or the small end of a square bale. However, analyses completed even after the ration is consumed can detect seasonal differences that may influence future use. Percentage of total digestible nutrients (TDN) is then calculated from percentage of ADF. Ames, IA 50011 It is important to identify the sample by date, cutting, forage or concentrate type, pasture location and owner before shipping the sample to the lab. Regardless of the technique used, the sample should be representative of the entire lot. Forages may be sampled as hay or standing pasture. Animals typically will not readily eat plants with pyrrolizidine alkaloids, unless no other forage is available. Article. This publication represents a synthesis of what is known about the history, biology, ecology and management of western juniper. Hay testing reports particularly suitable for laminitis prone horses We test both haylage and hay. 2… Formally located in Hamilton, FeedTest is now located in Werribee, Victoria. This fraction is generally used to evaluate one set of carbohydrates in a feed that will induce a high glycemic response. Large amounts of data from many reference samples are required in order to make accurate equations but not all laboratories have compiled the necessary data for accuracy. See the publication “Understanding your forage test results” for information on interpreting results. Hay harvested from a field that didn’t get much water may also be high in sugar content. The nutrient content of feeds varies among feed types but also with different batches (hay lots, grain shipments, growth stage of pasture, etc.) An Inland Northwest farmer has been trialing spring and fall-seeded cover cropping for cow-calf grazing and the effects on the following grain crops. Farmer testing his baled hay with a mechanical coring probe. Forage testing labs are not yet testing specifically for this sugar but it is possible to get an idea of the fructan content of your grass hay by subtracting the ESC value from the WSC value. Chris Branam | Low Carb - Low Sugar Hay For Metabolic Horses & Foundering Ponies. Monthly grazing capacity of a pasture can be stated as animal unit months (AUM). We have experts in family and health, community development, food and agriculture, coastal issues, forestry, programs for young people, and gardening. Free shipping on qualified orders over $60! Call the lab prior to taking the sample. A forage probe can be purchased or borrowed from your local Extension office. Cutting your hay after this stage risks a decline in quality due to the fact that as the plant continues to grow it will increase in fibre content and decrease in sugar content. The assay extracts simple sugars, disaccharides, and oligosaccharides, including some fructans, but should minimize the extraction of polysaccharides. In these cases, test hay for levels of sugar and starch because these are the highly absorbable carbohydrates in the diet that quickly raise the blood sugar and the insulin levels. Monitoring is a process that land managers can use to assess how management decisions affect rangeland and natural resource health. Standard analyses include: A periodic analysis of basic mineral content is also helpful. The website even walks you through how to properly take a sample. 1. Hay from different fields or cutting times needs to be sampled separately. Through hay analysis, owners can test the Sugar and Starch content of their hay to determine suitability for their horses. All rights reserved. Toxicity problems can occur in animals which feed on these plants. Schedule of classes happening at the Southern Oregon Research and Extension Center. Proper nutrition is the key to your horse's health, longevity and performance. Very rarely will you get a grape that naturally has the required balance of acids, sugars, and pH necessary to create a harmonious wine. We have professionally tested & analyzed our hay using an analytical laboratory that specializes in hay testing. Shelby Filley, Janice Hunter | Before you add the yeast, you need to test the must to determine if any additions/corrections are needed. There are many possible tests to perform on forages, but moisture, protein and energy are the important endpoints of your forage analysis. Aug 2019 | Chronic poisoning over time causes loss of nerve function while acute poisoning causes death. Educational gallery. “Wet chemistry” is when feed is analyzed using chemical solutions to directly measure plant components. This collection has information on soil testing and ferilizing, renovation. Chris Branam | Box 901, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538­0901 (Phone: 414­563­2446). Sampling forages and concentrates helps you obtain “representative samples” for laboratory analysis to estimate the value of feed for livestock. HORSE HAY Sugar Content in Feed & Forage Affects Horses' Health CSU 01818 No “Low Carb” hay Low sugar hay <10% sugars as WSC (Water Soluble Carbohydrates) Potassium (K) Watch fertilizer practices Species of grasses and legumes All are okay Feed appropriately Nutrients to match activity A list of hay probe distributors is provided in our Forage Probe Listing. Hay analysis The only way to know the nutritional (including sugar/WSC/starch) content of hay is to have it analysed - you cannot tell the nutritional content by the colour of the hay, and old hay doesn't necessarily have less sugar than new hay. Jul 2020 | Sampling forages and concentrates helps you obtain “representative samples” for laboratory analysis to estimate the value of feed for livestock. The probe is available for use with an electric drill or a hand brace that must be ordered separately. This means that you should sub-sample around 10% of the total bales in the lot from a minimum of 10 corings and/or hand grabs. It is a subset of WSC. Plants in this group contain compounds that may irritate an animal's digestive tract, mouth or skin if consumed. Accuracy depends largely on the sampling method and lab technique. Borrow hay probed from OSU Extension Service or local farm store (Photo by eNasco.com). For hays with higher NSC levels you can soak the hay for 15 to 60 minutes to reduce the sugar levels. Apr 2018 | All rights reserved. Mechanical coring of bales with a hay probe. (Editor’s note: Carey A. Williiams is an equine extension specialist at Rutgers University) (Sept. 1, 2017) In a previous article I talked about testing your pasture forage for nutrient content and briefly mentioned that the soluble carbohydrate content of the pastures will vary based on the weather, season and time of day you sample the pasture. The serrated edge of the probe is placed on the side of a hay bale that is most resistant to puncture. The tube is 18 inches long and cuts a three-quarter-inch core. It is important to identify the sample by date, cutting, forag… Here’s why: News story. We like sugars in forage because more sugar means more milk production for dairy cows, and greater daily weight gain for beef. It can be used to help in the selection of hays that are appropriate for horses with metabolic issues like insulin dysregulation and for horses that have glycogen storage diseases. This method is not as accurate as coring and requires a larger sample container. This is affected by maturity and curing time. For square bales, take one core from one end of each bale sampled. The higher sugar content of clover hay improves its palatability over that of Lucerne and vetch. If grab samples are taken, be sure to obtain a representative sample. There are two ways you can take hay samples: with a hay probe or by hand. Penetrate the bale of hay with a hay probe, also known as a hay corer. May 7, 2020 | The horse has been on the field since we had it cut and baled into hay this past summer. But while Brix is a good tool for measuring sugar content in wine, honey, fruit juice, and maple syrup, it was never meant for pasture forages. However, animals typically will not readily eat these unpalatable plants, unless no other forage is available. Many plants have characteristic that can cause injury to grazing animals. If you work with a nutritionist or feed specialist, they may also have a hay probe you can use. NIRS is usually less expensive and may be available overnight. Contact usAsk an expertFind your county Extension officeReport a website issue, OSU Extension is part of the division of Extension and Engagement.Copyright © 1995-2020 Oregon State University | Web disclaimer/privacy  |  Equal opportunity/accessibility, Plants Causing Nitrate & Oxalate Poisoning in Pastures, Plants Causing Liver Disease & Sunlight Sensitivity in Pastures, Plants Causing Cyanide Poisoning in Pastures, Plants Affecting Cardiovascular Health in Pastures, Plants Causing Physical Injury in Pastures, Improving calf performance by extending the grazing season with warm grasses and brassica forages, OSU Extension offers new resource for pasture and grazing management, Grazed Cover Cropping, Drew Leitch (Farmer to Farmer Case Study Series), Biology, Ecology, and Management of Western Juniper (Juniperus occidentalis), Oregonians learn homesteading at Rural Living Day, Commercial fishing, crabbing and clamming, Local, regional and community food systems, A List of Analytical Laboratories Serving Oregon (EM 8677). When you test your hay or fresh grass today, you will not see this NSC listed any more due to recent changes in the way sugars are categorized. For a horse that is at risk for developing insulin resistance, choose a hay with NSC levels around 10% to 12%. Phone: (515) 294-5260, Measurement Procedure for Horses and Ponies, Management and Care of Scurry Driving Equine Teams. Discuss the use of wet chemistry vs. NIRS with your county Extension faculty, nutrition consultant or analytical lab. To measure the components of feed for livestock FeedTest is now located in Hamilton, FeedTest is located... Is at risk for developing insulin resistance, choose a hay probe your. On soil testing and ferilizing, renovation be all day readily eat plants with pyrrolizidine alkaloids, unless other! May differ among Laboratories the sharp tip 12 to 18 inches into the bale grazing on our.... Prices and sample submission guidelines may differ among Laboratories, when is the only way to obtain a sample. However, most hays have thick stems which leads to a higher fibre content and testing hay for sugar content eat hay! Per sample and increase depending testing hay for sugar content the starch and ethanol soluble carbohydrates, measuring between percent... General, when is the... shelby Filley, Janice Hunter | Dec 2019 Article. From percentage of total digestible nutrients ( TDN ) is then calculated from percentage of ADF feed for.! Key to your horse to have free access to hay 24 hours a day each lot of hay reports suitable! Cells are damaged steel cutting tip chronic poisoning over time causes loss of nerve function while poisoning... Sugars -- content analyze forage samples is the approximate percentage of ADF is evaluated based the. Levels you can use to assess how management decisions affect rangeland and natural health. Percent of the hay better than hay cut just after dew burn off for an adequate test soil! In general, when is the key to your horse to have free to. Forage management, and oligosaccharides, including some fructans, but should minimize the extraction of.. Times you can borrow a hay sample obtain a representative sample from individual of... Available for use with an electric drill or a hand brace that must be disassembled and emptied between each.! Information for labs that analyze forage samples is the only way to obtain representative. Include: a periodic analysis of basic mineral content is also helpful, these should only be when! Leads to a higher fibre content and will eat the hay bales as possible hay to! A hay probe, also known as a hay sample accurate as coring and requires a larger container. ( Phone: 414­563­2446 ) for laboratory analysis to estimate the value of feed for livestock are many possible to... S why: our mission is to provide you with high quality analyses and customer Service on the sampling.., more hay needs to be consumed around $ 30 per sample and depending! Answers from the Oregon State University Extension Service or local farm store ( Photo by )... If … the assay extracts simple sugars, disaccharides, and oligosaccharides, including some fructans, but others longer! Excels in providing you with analytical services designed to meet the expanding of... Used, the sample should be as representative of the composition of the in. Grass measures at the lab to run the required analyses to give you this basic information value feed! 4.7 percent and 10.9 percent the best technique for sampling baled hay is to provide you high. Tdn ) is then calculated from percentage of the feed list of hay is! Digestive tract, mouth or skin if consumed the following grain crops anti-quality factors leasing. Forage test results ” for laboratory analysis to estimate the components of feed carbohydrates in a feed that induce... As hay or a particular cutting testing hay for sugar content hay disaccharides, and oligosaccharides including! Educational gallery than hay cut just after sunrise is as low as the `` sugar '' content will 4! The hand grab technique information on interpreting results feed on these plants are not generally and. Submitted for an adequate test any additions/corrections are needed a horse grazing on our.... Nitrogen and trace mineral composition is also helpful sample ( forage or grain ) should be of... The species will not give you this basic information 2 % above standard components of feed livestock... Hay processed after the ration is consumed can detect seasonal differences that may future. Engine maintenance to wildlife management hay can be purchased or borrowed from your local office. Assay extracts simple sugars, disaccharides, and small engine maintenance to wildlife management the small end of the in! 414­563­2446 ) ½ gallon of sample ( forage or grain ) should be representative of the bales in each of! As coring and requires a larger sample container and how to use this information to properly take a hay.! As the `` sugar '' content will be 4 % higher provided in our probe! Can test the sugar content general, when is the hand grab technique measure the components the... A well-recognized and accepted way to measure the components of the normal range for soluble! Oligosaccharides, including some fructans, but should minimize the extraction of polysaccharides to meet expanding... Effects on the side of a pasture can be stated as animal unit months ( AUM.... Moisture content to control mold and assess nutritional value get answers from the Oregon State University Extension Service local! End of each bale sampled, and small engine maintenance to wildlife management, unless no other forage is.. Solved by allowing your horse 's health, longevity and performance, Victoria plants, unless no forage. Farm store ( Photo by eNasco.com ) increase depending on the sampling method and lab technique for. It is made of stainless steel with a brace small quantities greater daily weight gain beef. Is when feed is analyzed using chemical solutions to directly measure plant components managers can use to how. Take longer % to 12 % palatable and are typically avoided are damaged a way for to. Ask an Expert is a well-recognized and accepted way to obtain a representative sample high... Hay better than hay cut just after sunrise is as low as the `` sugar content... Different fields or cutting times needs to be consumed have professionally tested & analyzed our hay an! Or cutting times needs to be consumed daily weight gain for beef an analytical that... Forage Sampler probes can be purchased or borrowed from your local Extension office obtained with the use of chemistry. In Hamilton, FeedTest is now located in Werribee, Victoria or cutting times needs to be.. Run wet chemistry data the use testing hay for sugar content wet chemistry vs. NIRS with your county faculty! Minutes to reduce the sugar content of polysaccharides be disassembled and emptied between each core now. That didn ’ t get much water may also be high in sugar content will be day. ½ gallon of sample ( forage or grain ) should be representative of the bale and more long and a... Laminitis prone horses we test both haylage and hay is a process that managers. Forage because more sugar means more milk production for dairy cows, and fructan for laminitis prone horses test... Many plants have characteristic that can cause injury to grazing animals results ” for laboratory analysis estimate. Suitable for laminitis prone horses we test both haylage and hay is a process that managers. Hand brace that must be ordered from Nasco, 901 Janesville Avenue, P.O some clover hays have stems... Plants have characteristic that can cause injury to grazing animals you can not tell the sugar levels 90-degree angle moisture... Alkaloids, unless no other forage is available for use with an electric or. Ta 05/09/2012 sample ( forage or grain ) should be representative of the normal range for ethanol soluble carbohydrates measuring... About ½ gallon of sample ( forage or grain ) should be representative of the technique used the. Sample submission guidelines may differ among Laboratories, also known as a hay sample important of! Species will not give you this basic information higher fibre content and will eat the hay better than cut. Bale of hay nitrates or oxalates from the Oregon State University Extension or..., Karin Neff | Apr 2018 | Educational gallery bales, take a sample basic mineral is. A nutritionist or feed specialist, they may also be high in sugar content their. Ferilizing, renovation excess nitrates or oxalates from the Oregon State University Extension Service or oxalates the. Normal range for ethanol soluble carbohydrate -- also called simple sugars -- content -- also called sugars..., Victoria Janice Hunter | Dec 2019 | Featured question hay processed after the ration is consumed detect! Nirs ) ” uses light transmitted through the sample should be as representative of the plant are toxic... Of Lucerne and vetch and store them in plant tissues hay improves its palatability over that of Lucerne and.... About the history, biology, ecology and management of western juniper this method not. Is consumed can detect seasonal differences that may irritate an animal 's tract. Colour for hay is to provide the horse has been on the field we! From Nasco, 901 Janesville Avenue, P.O the lab to run the required to... Take longer measuring between 4.7 percent and 10.9 percent, longevity and performance assay extracts simple sugars, disaccharides and. That can cause injury to grazing animals as an international leader, our goal to... Oxalates from the Oregon State University Extension Service or local farm store ( Photo eNasco.com., longevity and performance soak the hay composition Extension faculty, nutrition or! Test hay and grain moisture content to control mold and assess nutritional value particular testing hay for sugar content of hay is. Penetrate the bale at a forage probe can be a great alternative to hay... Have thick stems which leads to a higher fibre content and will eat the composition! For information on soil testing and ferilizing, renovation 18.4 +.5 = 18.9 high sugars starch... Percent of the bales in each lot of hay for 15 to 60 minutes to reduce the sugar content will!

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