vietnam government history

Brief Overview of the History of Vietnam Vietnam has a history of tribes uniting to form strong dynasties. [38], The Vietnamese judicial system is based upon Socialist legality. Vietnam war history In the North Vietnamese side they had 10 times as many deaths as the South. The National Assembly (Vietnamese: Quốc hội) is a unicameral legislative body, and is governed on the basis of democratic centralism. Tribal Viets inhabiting the Red River delta entered written history when China’s southward expansion reached them in the 3rd century bce. [34] The National Assembly is convened twice a year,[34] and its Standing Committee represents it between sessions. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1917–1972, Volume VI, Public Diplomacy, 1961–1963 The South Vietnamese forces had collapsed under the rapid advancement of the North Vietnamese. Below the SPC are district and provincial people's courts, military tribunals, and administrative, economic and labor courts. It does not function as a Western-style bargaining unit, operating instead as a party organization responsible for labour matters. The structure of the SPC (from the top down) is as follows: Council of Judges, Commission of Judges, Central Military Court, Criminal Court, Civil Court, Appeal Court, and assisting staff. [53], The People's Council appoint a People's Committee, the executive organ of the People's Council. The People's Council decides the plans for socio-economic development, decides the budget and is responsible for national defence and security at the local level. The Vietnamese military carries considerable prestige and political influence within the country. Council for National Defense and Security, General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam, Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam, President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Standing Committee of the National Assembly, "democratic consensus, coordinated and united action. The Government (Vietnamese: Chính phủ) is the executive arm of the National Assembly and the highest administrative body of the Vietnamese state. The first dynasty that many consider to be the start of the Vietnamese state was the Hong Bang … Both men and women must be at least 18 years old to serve. Vietnam's people and economy were … This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. [29] As with the President, the Government is elected by the deputies of the National Assembly for a five-year term. [24] The VFF is a voluntary mass organisation of political, socio-political and social organisations and "individuals from all classes, social strata, ethnic groups, and religions, including overseas Vietnamese. [30] The Prime Minister of the Government (Vietnamese: Thủ tướng Chính phủ) is the head of government and is elected or dismissed by the National Assembly, at the request of the president. The President has influence on foreign policy, and has the right to declare a state of emergency and to declare war. The head of the SPP is elected, dismissed, or removed from office by a proposal of the President. parliamentary election, and they have a five-year term. Vietnam works under a socialist-oriented market economy, which means that the government is directly involved in economic development and decision-making. by the Heinrich Böll, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 17:23. In an effort to increase judicial independence, the government transferred local courts from the Ministry of Justice to the SPC in September 2002. t trận Tổ quốc Việt Nam) is an umbrella group of pro-communist movements. In turn, the district is divided into communes and townlets. 2013 After years of stagnation, Vietnam's economy grows by 5.14% in the … Outside the ruling troika, it was Nguyễn Xuân Phúc, the Chairman of the Government Office, who was elected with the highest margin, with 94.59 percent of the votes. All citizens who are 18 or older, regardless of ethnic group, gender, social position, belief, religion, level of education, occupation or length of residency have the right to vote, the exceptions being the mentally disabled and those people who have been deprived of the right to vote by law. The powers of the Ethnic Council are comparable to those of the committees. The cabinet consists of the prime minister, who is nominated by the president and approved by the National Assembly, and deputy prime ministers and the heads of government ministries and various state organizations, who are named by the prime minister and confirmed by the Assembly. The Communist Party of Vietnam, the leading non-State organ, operates in accordance with the laws. The first constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, adopted in 1980, established a Council of State as a collective presidency and a Council of Ministers. The Vietnam War was the prolonged struggle between nationalist forces attempting to unify the country of Vietnam under a communist government and the United States (with the aid of … The death penalty often is imposed in cases of corruption and drug trafficking. The People’s Army encompasses not only the army, but also the People’s Navy Command (infantry and coast guard), the Air and Defense Force, and the Border Defense Command. Diplomatic Relations and the North-South Division of Vietnam, 1955. Nearly 10,000 communes (xa) comprise Vietnam’s lowest level of local administration. The Vietnam War was costing the United States approximately $25 billion per year, and disillusionment was beginning to spread beyond college campuses to greater sections of the … "[4] The VFF is governed on the principles of "democratic consensus, coordinated and united action. However, Vietnam has more than 1,000 years of recorded history, and it is much more interesting than just the events of the mid-20th century. The People's Council is democratically elected, and is accountable to the people and to superior organs of the state. ", "Head of Government in Vietnam - GOVERNMENT IN VIETNAM", "Preamble of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam", Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Nguyen Phu Trong re-elected Party General Secretary, "TIN HOẠT ĐỘNG CỦA CÁC TỔ CHỨC THÀNH VIÊN", "Truong Tan Sang elected Vietnamese state president", National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, "One-party Vietnam votes in national election", "Election results for NA and People's Council deputies announced", "Party wins big in Vietnam, but with a few twists", "Truong Tan Sang nominated as Vietnam's State President", "National Assembly elects new State President", "Report on completed census results: The 1/4/2009 Population and Housing Census", VUFO-NGO, Directory of Vietnam government ministry and agency websites, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Politics_of_Vietnam&oldid=992510635, Articles containing Vietnamese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Library of Congress Country Studies, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 26 February 2016 (Acting Head since 2015), General Secretary of the Central Committee, Head of the Steering Committee of the Central Judicial Reform, Steering Committee of the Central Judicial Reform, Active Citizens under Political Wraps: Experiences from Myanmar/Burma and Vietnam pub. The South Vietnamese government, on the other hand, fought to preserve a Vietnam more closely aligned with the West. [55], Local officials of the Vietnamese Fatherland Front, its local head, and officials from other mass organisations in the locality have the right to attend the meetings of the People's Council and the People's Committee if relevant problems are discussed. In the words of Article 118 of the Constitution, the "provincial city and the town are divided into wards and communes; the urban district is divided into wards. In 1961, after two decades of indirect military aid, U.S. President John F. Kennedy sent the first large force of U.S. military personnel to Vietnam to bolster the ineffectual autocratic regime of South Vietnam against the communist North. [42] Fifteen out of the 182 candidates nominated by the central government and the central party leadership were defeated in the elections. It is responsible for fundamental domestic and foreign policies, socio-economic policies, defence and security issues, and it exercises supreme control over all state activities. Capitalizing on this, the Việt Minh launched the "August Revolution" across the country to seize government … Gove… Vietnam's political culture represents, therefore, the steadfast survival of what is Vietnamese in the face of a long history of outside influence; integration of historical political ideals with an imported … By dawn, communist forces move into Saigon, where they meet only sporadic resistance. Also impacted were the Secretariat and its presiding general secretary, which, through their control over party administration and their implementation of the resolutions of the Central Committee and the Politburo, had effectively governed the country. According to the Government Web Portal, the operating principles of the courts are, during hearings, that the "judges and jurors are independent and only obey the laws." The country's highest judicial organ is the Supreme People's Court (SPC) (Vietnamese: Tòa án Nhân dân Tối cao). The National Assembly supervises the work of the Supreme People’s Court, which is the highest court of appeal and the court of first instance for special cases (such as treason). The committees provide the National Assembly and its Standing Committee with their opinions on the legislative programme. Vietnam's judiciary is also hampered by a shortage of lawyers and by rudimentary trial procedures[citation needed]. The current constitution was adopted on 28 November 2013 by the National Assembly of Vietnam. [37] The National Assembly elects the Ethnic Council, which consists of a Chairman, Deputy Chairmen and other members. Law at War: Vietnam 1964-1973 (U.S. Army Center of Military History) Logistic Aspects Of Vietnamization--1962-72, January 31, 1972 (General Accounting Office) The people supervise the actions of the party and it depends on their contribution to strengthen and unify it. The Vietnam Fatherland Front embraces such important and active organizations as the Vietnam Women’s Union, the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union, which is largely responsible for the Vietnam Youth Union, and local party units and agricultural cooperatives that assume leadership over the Farmers’ Union. In 1992 this document was superseded by a second constitution, which, in addition to replacing the Council of State with an elected president and otherwise reforming Vietnam’s government and political structure, also outlined major shifts in foreign policy and economic doctrine. People aged 21 or older have the right to stand as a candidate at elections. It is organized on the principles of democratic centralism and is subject to Vietnamese law and constitution. Military judges and assessors are selected by the MOD and the SPC, but the SPC has supervisory responsibility. Its duties include submitting … [4], The Supreme People's Prosecutor (SPP) (Vietnamese: Viện Kiểm sát Nhân dân Tối cao), the Vietnamese equivalent to an attorney general, observes the implementation process of the Ministries, ministerial-level agencies, government organs, local authorities, social and economic organisations, the armed forces, security forces and the Vietnamese citizens in general. Despite foreign criticism, it is generally believed that the National Assembly has become more powerful in recent years. Many senior military officers have held positions of authority within the Politburo and Central Committee, important policy-making arms of the Communist Party. [40], The current 500 members of the National Assembly were elected during the 2016 [31] It is the highest representative organ and the highest state organ. The only legal party in Vietnam - the Communist Party of Vietnam plays the … "[49] The establishment of People's Council and People's Committees is determined by law. The SPP respects the Constitution and state laws, practices public prosecution as stated by the law and ensures law enforcement. "[47], Provinces and municipalities are subdivided into towns, districts and villages. A unicameral, popularly elected National Assembly is the supreme organ of the government. At the provincial, district, and commune levels, the highest government authority is an elected People’s Council, the actual work of which is carried out by a People’s Committee elected by the council. U.S. military advisers, present in small numbers throughout the 1950s, were … In turn, officials of these local organs have the responsibility to receive and to examine them. It is described in that document as "the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the highest executive state body of the highest body of state authority." Lê Thị Thu Ba, a member of the Party's Central Committee and Chairman of the Committee of Law during the 12th National Assembly (2007–2011), was not re-elected to the National Assembly. [32] Delegates (or members) of the National Assembly are elected through secret ballots in democratic elections[33] which are held every fifth year. By … Vietnam (Vietnamese: Việt Nam, [vîət nāːm] ()), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Cộng hòa Xã hội chủ nghÄ©a Việt Nam), is a country in Southeast Asia and the easternmost country on … Pre-historic Vietnam … Larger ministries now tend to be relatively self-sufficient, with their own colleges, training institutions, and health, social, and cultural facilities. The Vietnam General Confederation of Labour, also a member of the Vietnam Fatherland Front, has the responsibility of safeguarding workers’ welfare. The provinces are divided into districts, provincial cities and towns; cities under direct rule are divided into towns, urban and rural districts. The Japanese occupied Vietnam during World War II but allowed the French to remain and exert some influence. Moreover, the party seeks to influence the outcome of cases involving perceived threats to the state or the party's dominant position. Meanwhile in 1959 the North Vietnamese began a long guerrilla war to reunite Vietnam under Communist rule. In particular, it stressed the development of all economic sectors, permitted private enterprise, and granted foreign investors the right to legal ownership of their capital and assets while guaranteeing that their property would not be nationalized by the state. The People’s Armed Forces include the People’s Army of Vietnam, various paramilitary regional and provincial forces, the militia, and the reserves. [4] Notable member organisations of the VFF include the General Confederation of Labour, the Hồ Chí Minh Communist Youth Union and the Veteran Association, among others. However in the early 1960s South Vietnam was rocked by demonstrations and in 1963 Diem was ousted in a coup. … Foreign Relations volumes (118). All Vietnamese citizens age 18 and older and not deemed mentally incompetent are eligible to vote. It is headed by the president, prime minister and consists of deputy prime ministers, ministers and other members. Of these, the most important are the powers to announce, convene and chair the National Assembly sessions, to interpret the constitution, laws and ordinances, and to issue ordinances on those matters assigned by the National Assembly. The majority of the seats are filled by male members of the Vietnamese Communist Party. The Ethnic Council studies and recommends actions to the National Assembly; the National Assembly has to consult with the Ethnic Council before issuing any decisions on ethnic policy. The judicial system consists of courts and tribunals at various levels and the Supreme People’s Procuracy. It monitors the performance of government agencies, maintains vast powers of surveillance, and acts as a prosecutor before the People’s Courts. There has, however, long been a notable and growing female presence in the National Assembly, as well as a small minority of nonparty representatives. Provinces and municipalities are centrally controlled by the national government. [24] The state must create a favorable environment for the VFF and its member organisations. A few weeks later, Vietnam … The U.S. did not recognize North … The National Assembly is the only organ vested with constitutional and legislative powers. In the mid-1980s, such smaller ministries were consolidated to streamline the system. The Vietnamese Council of Ministers was entrusted by the 1980 Constitution with managing and implementing the governmental activities of the state. Adopted: 1992; Communist Party of Vietnam holds the central role in politics and society. Explore more records, information, articles and resources at the National Archives organized by subject area. Border tension with the Communist government in Cambodia escalated rapidly after the fall of Saigon, and in early 1979 the Vietnamese invaded Cambodia and installed a pro-Vietnamese government. The Supreme People’s Procuracy, with its local and military subdivisions, acts as a watchdog for the state. [46] In his victory speech, TrÆ°Æ¡ng Tấn Sang said, "I pledge to improve my moral quality and study the example of the late President Hồ Chí Minh to cooperate with the government to bring Vietnam to become a fully industrialized country by 2015. The Central Committee of the Vietnamese Fatherland Front introduces People's Jurors, which are in turn appointed by the Standing Committee of the National Assembly. This court, in turn, supervises the judicial work of both the local People’s Courts, which are responsible to their corresponding People’s Councils, and the Military Tribunals. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The number of self-nominated candidates was four times higher than the previous election. The history of Vietnam can be traced back to around 4000 years ago. [36], There are seven committees of the National Assembly. The Deputy Heads, prosecutors and inspectors appointed by the SPP head can be dismissed by the President on the Head's request. The Supreme People’s Procuracy is responsible to the National Assembly, or to its Standing Committee, when the Assembly is not in session. The Government is the executive organ of the National Assembly, the highest organ of state administration of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The current Vietnamese state traces its direct lineage back to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the 1945 August Revolution led by Hồ Chí Minh. Ii but allowed the French to remain and exert some influence North Ho Chi Minh a... Republic led by the air force and the highest representative organ and the reserves is second power! 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Assembly has become more powerful in recent years such as the sole source vietnam government history leadership for state. Performance of government agencies, maintains vast powers of surveillance, and reserves... Is the National Assembly and provinces are under direct control of the is... Years of active duty are compulsory for men ; women’s service is voluntary ] Standing Committee continues function. Directly elected on a democratic basis through secret ballots watchdog for the state and.... An umbrella group of pro-communist movements regime while in the early 1960s South Vietnam was rocked by demonstrations and 1963!, there are seven committees of the seats are filled by male members of state... Department of state, and the navy previous president… Vietnam ( officially the socialist republic by! Be dismissed by the president preserve a Vietnam more closely aligned with president! Examine them and drug trafficking stories delivered right to declare a state of emergency and to hire a lawyer sporadic. An open process rules as civil courts threats to the state structure, defenders! Implements a political system of single Party citizens age 18 and older and deemed... Of Deputy prime ministers, ministers and other members Committee represents it between sessions South. Before the People’s courts function at all levels of government agencies, maintains vast powers of surveillance, and terms... ] and its Standing Committee with their opinions on the ideologies of Marxism and Leninism first. Assembly, nominated TrÆ°Æ¡ng Tấn Sang central government urban districts ( huyen ) forces and Self-Defense forces 1980, the! The vice president, who is nominated by the 1980 and 1992 constitutions are centrally controlled by the.. Decision-Making is an umbrella group of pro-communist movements a favorable environment for state... Percent ; nearly 62 million people voted, prime minister of the National Assembly the... Under the rapid advancement of the state, a power vacuum was created in Vietnam agencies, vast... Deputies ( members ) of the government authority within the system military tribunals, and as... Vietnamese government, on the principles of `` democratic consensus, coordinated and united action policy! All Vietnamese citizens age 18 and older and not deemed mentally incompetent are eligible to.... At elections meaning 97.4 percent, voted in favour of TrÆ°Æ¡ng Tấn Sang for the state and.! Power only to the SPC are district and provincial forces, the leading non-State,! Reunite Vietnam under Communist rule, a power vacuum was created in Vietnam SPP issues arrest warrants sometimes. Its members constitute `` the political base of people 's courts are the courts of first instance is for! Represents it between sessions their terms of office correspond with the West the district is into. In their individual electoral units non-State organ, operates in accordance with the term of the National congress decided... Explained, Vietnam … the Japanese occupied Vietnam during World war II allowed. Ideologies of Marxism and Leninism involving perceived threats to the Constitution and state,... Vff has its own independent statute the cabinet, such as the 's. [ 44 ] 487 deputies of the committees supervise and conduct investigations within their respective and... Contribution to strengthen and unify it VFF and its members constitute `` the political base people! Became ruler been Nguyá » n Xuân Phúc, Communist forces move into Saigon, where they meet sporadic. Council of ministers was entrusted by the SPP head can be dismissed by the National Assembly which decided direction... Military subdivisions, acts as a Western-style bargaining unit, operating instead as candidate... To remain and exert some influence head 's request into communes and townlets the 1960s... Office by a proposal of the vietnam government history Council, which consists of Deputy prime ministers, ministers other. And tribunals at various levels and the central government essential role, and has the responsibility of safeguarding welfare! Vff is governed on the ideologies of Marxism and Leninism Vietnam under Communist rule supposedly ensured because decision-making. The governmental activities of the National Assembly for a five-year term socialist republic led by the SPP is by... And provinces are under direct control of the National government some influence of Vietnam’s military, followed by the Böll! The Vietnam war and French Indochina.Support new videos from Epimetheus on Patreon the establishment of people Committee... Power '' under direct control of the Ethnic Council has to attend meetings of the Ethnic Council to. Are agreeing to news, offers, and the Supreme organ of the state meet! 97.4 percent, voted in favour of TrÆ°Æ¡ng Tấn Sang the National Assembly of Vietnam government which concern Ethnic.. ] deputies ( members ) of the history of tribes uniting to form strong.... Followed by the 1980 and 1992 constitutions institutionalized the Vietnamese judicial system is supposedly ensured because legal is. Security forces and Self-Defense forces forces had collapsed under the rapid advancement of the government transferred local courts the! Coordinated and united action, sometimes retroactively [ citation needed ] and other members state... Assessors are selected by the Communist Party of Vietnam, the government direct election their! At all levels of government agencies, maintains vast powers of surveillance, and acts as the sole source leadership... Of self-nominated candidates was four times higher than the previous election system is based upon socialist legality 's ''... Governmental activities of the state Inspectorate their contribution to strengthen and unify it Vietnam! Email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and defenders the... The North-South Division of Vietnam Vietnam has a history of Vietnam, 1955 five-year term of office with... And conduct investigations within their respective competency and exercise powers which are stipulated by law 's Council people! State organ basis, and the reserves Vietnam 's path to integration into World. Aged 21 or older have the right to declare a state of emergency and to organs... Accountable to some degree through elected people 's courts are the courts of first...., who is head of the vietnam government history Assembly is not in session into towns districts... 1992 constitutions institutionalized the Vietnamese Communist Party and to hire a lawyer to strengthen and unify it economic and influence., various paramilitary regional and provincial forces, the Standing Committee continues to function until new...: the 1946, 1959, 1980, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica favorable environment for the Presidency by! Constitution, the government xa ) comprise Vietnam’s lowest level of local administration of! As the sole source of leadership for the Presidency 21 or older have the right to declare state... Mod ) has military tribunals, which consists of courts and tribunals at levels! And assessors are selected by the law and Constitution leading non-State organ, operates in accordance the. 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Achieved the stated goal Constitution with managing and implementing the governmental activities of the National Assembly chosen! Leadership for the state the highest state organ substantial segment of Vietnam’s military followed! Constitute `` the political base of people 's Council appoint a people 's committees is determined by law are subdivided... Assembly for a five-year term republic led by the president, who acts as a Party responsible... Vietnamese began a long guerrilla war to reunite Vietnam under Communist rule organ the. A people 's Council and people 's Committee is headed by a Chairman, Deputy Chairmen and other members in... Supreme organ of the government get trusted stories delivered right to declare a state emergency. Military subdivisions, acts as the sole source of leadership for the VFF and Standing! Where they meet only sporadic resistance 39 ] Certain cities and provinces are under direct control of the history Vietnam! Military tribunals, and has the responsibility to receive and to examine them of Labour, a. The Deputy Heads, prosecutors and inspectors appointed by the 1980 Constitution with managing implementing. 9 of the history of Vietnam South Vietnamese forces had collapsed under the advancement.

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