legal terms in nursing

The ulcer is superficial and looks like an abrasion, blister, or shallow crater at this stage. Case law – Law established by previous decisions of State Courts, Appellate Courts, Federal Court or the United States Supreme Court. Involuntary seclusion – Removal of a nursing home patient from the general population or from his or her room against their will or against the wishes of the nursing home patient’s legal representative. Door alarm – Notification system that alerts others when a person gets out of their room or the room in which the door is alarmed. Hemorrhage – Bleeding or the abnormal flow of blood. Please consult the disclaimer page for further information concerning NHLC. Bedsore lawsuit – A lawsuit brought on behalf of an individual or an estate against a facility (nursing home/hospital/assisted living facility) where a bedsore may have originated. It usually starts in the lungs, but can also start in the abdomen or other organs. Never event – A series of 28 inexcusable outcomes in a health are setting. As nursing practice evolves, these fluid concepts are refined and changed. Nursing Home Lawsuit – A lawsuit brought on behalf of an injury party or their estate for personal injury or wrongful death against a nursing home. Hospital error – Any error occurring during an admission to a hospital including errors made by physicians, nurses, and other hospital staff. Unstageable – Full thickness loss of tissue where the base of the bedsore is covered by slough and/or eschar in the bed of the wound. United States Court of Appeals – Courts which hear appeals from federal district courts, bankruptcy courts, and tax courts. They include crutches, canes, walkers, wheelchairs and motorized scooters. Dismissal – The termination of a lawsuit. Cholecystitis – The inflammation of the gall bladder. Nursing Home Abuse – Nursing home abuse can be defined as any act, failure to act, or incitement to act done willfully, knowingly, or recklessly through words or physical action which causes or could cause mental or physical injury or death to a nursing home resident. Hospice care – Hospice care involves a team-oriented approach that addresses the medical, physical, social, emotional and spiritual needs of the terminally-ill patient. Willful touching of a person, person’s clothes or something the person is carrying that may or may not cause harm but the touching was done without permission, without consent, is embarrassing or causes injury. Subdural hematomas are usually the result of a serious head injury. Frozen joints – Adhesive capsulitis is a painful disorder that results from the chronic inflammation, scarring, thickening and shrinkage or the capsule that surrounds the involved joint, classically occurring in the shoulders or the knees. lamiller1. Ethics regards standards of moral judgement and professional conduct. Usually a vacuum helps create pressure in the wounds environment. Surgical debridement – The use of a a surgical tool to cut the dead tissue from a wound to clean it out. G tube – Gastric feeding tube is a tube inserted through a small incision in the abdomen into the stomach and is used for long-term enteral nutrition; for placement, the patient is under sedation and the tube goes through the mouth and esophagus into the stomach; they are good for long term use (6 months with replacement being done through an existing passage without any other procedures); g-tubes help when there is swallowing difficulties secondary to neurological or anatomical disorders. Search results Jump to search results. They will look like a large, deep, open wound revealing bone and connective tissue. Execute – To complete; to sign; to carry out according to its terms. It spreads through contaminated food or water, and contact with an infected person. Indigent – Needy or impoverished. Arbitration – The hearing of a dispute by an impartial third person or persons (chosen by the parties), whose award the parties agree to accept. Qui tam – A provision of the Federal Civil False Claims Act that permits a nursing home employee (or any U.S. Citizen) to file a lawsuit on behalf of the U.S. government, to file a lawsuit against a nursing home or corporation that fraudulently uses a government funds. Strict liability – Concept applied by the courts in product liability cases that when a manufacturer presents his goods for public sale, he is representing that they are suitable for their intended use. During treatment, your blood flows through tubes into the filter to clean out wastes and extra fluids. October 23, 2018. Injury from wrong medication dosage , time of administration (malpractice), Injury from visibly defective or improperly tested equipment(negligence), Lack of common nursing judgment, such as using an oral thermometer in a delirious or irresponsible patient(negligence). Autolytic debridement – For bed sore patients, autolysis uses the body’s own enzymes and moisture to re-hydrate, soften and finally liquefy hard eschar and slough; this is a selective process – only necrotic tissue is liquefied and is virtually painless to the patient. Stipulation – An agreement between the parties involved in a suit regulating matters incidental to trial. Mesothelioma – Mesothelioma is cancer of that tissue that lines the lungs– mesothelium. Most cases of food poisoning are from common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or E. coli. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open fracture (compound fracture). Standing – The legal right to bring a lawsuit. Many episodes involving a fall during a transfer stem from the fact the the staff was failing to assist or supervise the patient. People who cannot control their bowel or bladder function are generally referred to as incontinent and may require a catheter, colostomy bag or diaper. Ultra sound assisted wound therapy – Using ultrasound to help debride deep wounds (bedsores) that have infections and impaired circulation. If you report symptoms to a resident or interm and proper action is not taken , you could be held liable for not reporting to attending physician. Nursing Vocabulary. Tort reform – Changes that may take place in the civil justice system that would lesson tort litigation/damages. The clot can block blood flow. Articles. Services provided include comprehensive rehabilitation, respiratory therapy, head trauma treatment, and pain management. Neuropathy – A disruption in the nervous system secondary to disease or an abnormality. Belgium law requires collection of a nursing minimum data set since 1988 (Sermeus, Delesie, Van den Heede, Diya, & Lesaffre, 2008) and hospital budgets have been adjusted for nursing care using fixed cost based on staffing ratios plus variable nursing intensity component (Unruh, Hassmiller, & … Personal representative – The person who administers an estate. Broken bone – A broken bone may occur when more pressure is put on a bone than it can stand and the bone literally splits or breaks. Then the newly cleaned blood flows through another set of tubes and back into your body. Minimum data set – Governmental requirements for assessing individuals to determine level of care during nursing home admission. A pressure ulcer starts as reddened skin but gets progressively worse, forming a blister, then an open sore, and finally a crater. (Similarly referred to as: stage 4 pressure sore, stage 4 pressure ulcer or stage 4 decubitus ulcer), Standard of proof – Indicates the degree to which the point must be proven. Living trust – A trust set up and in effect during the lifetime of the grantor. After the expiration of the statutory period, unless a legal exception applies, the injured person loses the right to file a lawsuit seeking money damages or other relief. Examples include: bathing, eating and dressing. Pneumonia – An illness that occurs in one or both lungs that derives from bacteria, a virus(es), or fungus. Hospice also provides support to the patient’s family or caregiver as well. Legal Definition list. Litigation – A lawsuit; a legal action, including all proceedings therein. For example, a request for a search warrant is an ex parte proceeding, since the person subject to the search is not notified of the proceeding and is not present at the hearing. Claim – A debt owing by a debtor to another person or business. Negotiation – The process of submission and consideration of offers until an acceptable offer is made and accepted. Burns from hot water bag,heating pads , contact with steam pipes or scalding water and from chemicals(malpractice), Sponges over locked in surgical wounds, improper sponge count (negligence), Falls on slippery floors or bath tubs (negligence). Burden of proof – In the law of evidence, the necessity or duty of affirmatively proving a fact or facts in dispute on an issue raised between the parties in a lawsuit. Failure of an individual to provide care that a reasonable person would ordinarily use in a similar circumstance. They may have fast paced ticks in the arms, legs, trunks, and fingers. There are three primary duties for nurses, among many others, which are the duty of autonomy, confidentiality, and duty of care to all patients. Injunction – A prohibitive order or remedy issued by the court at the suit of the complaining party, which forbids the defendant to do some act which he is threatening or attempting to do. (See disbarment or censure.). s 636. Diabetic Ketoacidosis – Potentially life-threatening complication in patients with diabetes mellitus, predominately in those with type 1 diabetes, but can occur in those with type 2 diabetes. Docket – An abstract or listing of all pleadings filed in a case; the book containing such entries; trial docket is a list of or calendar of cases to be tried in a certain term. Fecal impaction – A fecal impaction is a large mass of dry, hard stool that can develop in the rectum due to chronic constipation. Written instructions that are recognized under state law and related to the provision of such care when the individual is capacitated. Debridement – Process of removing non-living tissue from pressure ulcers, burns, and other wounds. Aspiration – The taking of foreign matter into the lungs with the respiratory current. The mist may come from hot tubs, showers or air-conditioning units for large buildings. Advanced Medical Care Directive . Skin graft – A piece of skin that is surgically moved from one area of the body and attached to another area. Learn. Nurses are highly accountable to patients, the public, employers, and the entire profession. A nursing home injury may occur due to an intentional or negligent act of a nursing home employee, agent or patient. Sacral wound – A pressure sore that has developed on the persons sacrum or buttocks area. Nurse threatens a client with an injection after refusing to take the meds orally. Negative pressure wound therapy – (Topical negative pressure, sub-atmospheric pressure dressings, vacuum sealing technique) – A way to promote healing in chronic wounds, fight infection and enhance healing in body tissue. Pharmaceutical errors – Can occur from prescribing the incorrect medication or dosage to the pharmacist filling the incorrect medication or dosage or labeling incorrectly. Don’t help a patient to prepare a will. Symptoms include bluish discoloration of the skin (from lack of oxygen), chest pain, cough with foul-smelling phlegm, phlegm with pus or blood, greenish sputum, fatigue, fever, shortness of breath, wheezing, breath odor, excessive sweating, swallowing difficulty. Anemia – A medical condition in which the red blood cell count (hemoglobin) is less than normal. This includes: physical abuse; sexual abuse; emotional abuse; neglecting or deserting an older person you are responsible for or taking or misusing an elderly person’s money or property. Adverse effects may cause medical complications of a disease or procedure and negatively affect its prognosis. Emotional abuse – Emotional abuse of an elder is commonly defined as a pattern of behavior by caregivers that can seriously interfere with a senior’s cognitive, emotional or psychological safety. If the nurse gave the injection without client’s consent, the nurse would be committing battery even if the client benefits from the nurse’s action. This, along with good judgment and sound decision making, ensures that your patients receive safe and appropriate nursing care. Battery – A beating, or wrongful physical violence. Feeding tube – A small, soft, plastic tube placed through the nose (NG) or mouth (OG) into the stomach. This is a very broad term covering the presence of many types of microscopic disease-causing organisms. Arbitration Agreements – Predominately in cases involving nursing home negligence, arbitration agreements stipulate that cause of action against a nursing home for personal injuries or wrongful death is to be resolved via private arbitration as opposed to a jury trial. Wound vac – Machine that uses negative pressure to help heal an open wound. Some adverse effects only occur when starting, increasing or discontinuing a treatment. Sexual assault – Sexual assault can be defined as any unwanted touching of a persons body with the intent to sexually gratify the assailant without consent. Disfigurement – The state of having one’s appearance deeply and persistently harmed medically, as from a disease, birth defect, or wound. Untreated bed sores may quickly advance resulting in an open would susceptible to infection and other medical complications such as gangrene, osteomyelitis and sepsis. This post is organized by a situation, so you can jump to the section … Terms in this set (25) Advanced Directive. You further agree that all terms and conditions, agreements, notices, disclosures, and other communications that we provide to you electronically satisfy any legal requirement that such communications would satisfy if they were provided to you in writing. Medicaid programs vary from state to state, but most health care costs are covered if you qualify for both Medicare and Medicaid. Duty – the nurse must have a relationship with the client that involves providing care and following an acceptable standard of care. Intentional tort – Wrong perpetrated by one who intends to break the law. makes it easy to get the grade you want! Wandering – Wandering (also referred to elopement) refers to a cognitively impaired person moving about a nursing home or long-term care facility without appreciation for where they are going. Myocardosis – heart muscle inflammation. Notice – Formal notification to the party that has been sued in a civil case of the fact that the lawsuit has been filed. This court hears all preliminary criminal matters, but does not conduct felony trials, and any pretrial civil matters referred by the district court. 2. Economic damages – Generally refers to fixed expenses for past or future hospitalizations or medical care. Prior case results should not be relied on when retaining a lawyer. Testator – Person who makes a will (Female: testatrix). Commonly referred to as nursing homes. Decubitus ulcers are ‘staged’ or graded according to their severity: stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, stage 4 or unstageable. Default judgment – A judgment entered against a party who fails to appear in court or respond to the charges. Legal Risks in Nursing. A medical term can have more than one root. Hearsay – Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Once a patient recovers from the illness or injury, they will not need assistance of an acute care facility. Tunneling – A connection of different lengths through a solid body which is enclosed except for the ends for entering and exiting. Method for Mastering Nursing Pharmacology 39 Things Every Nursing Student Needs Before Starting School Permanent injunction – A court order requiring that some action be taken, or that some party refrain from taking action. Causes of medication error may include difficulty in reading handwritten orders, confusion about different drugs with similar names, and lack of information about a patient’s drug allergies or sensitivities. Please note that the content on this page is currently under review. Privacy Policy. Warning, a stage four bedsore is extremely disturbing to see. Colostomy – Reversible surgical procedure in which a stoma is formed by drawing the healthy end of the large intestine or colon through an incision in the anterior abdominal wall and suturing it into place; this opening, in conjunction with the attached stoma appliance, provides an alternative channel for feces to leave the body. It causes a staph infection (pronounced “staff infection”) that is resistant to several common antibiotics. This post is going specialized for lawyers. Created by. An objection is either sustained (allowed) or overruled by the judge. Nurses aide – aAn employee who is hired to care for patients whose responsibilities are less specialized than a nurses; the aide assists in bathing, feeding, bed making, transporting; they are under the direction of the registered nurse. Punitive damages – A type of monetary recovery for an injured person with the intent of punished the wrong doing company or facility. It is imperative they have a sound understanding of various ethical, legal and professional issues they will face during their careers. It is therefore important to regulate the practice of nursing to ensure that standards are maintained to achieve safe practice. Twitter. People may also have uncontrolled movements in the face such as a grimace, tongue protrusion, lip smacking, puckering/pursing of the lips and blinking. Also, any form of notification of a legal proceeding. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Verbal elder abuse – Oral, written or gestured language that disparages a nursing home patient made directly to the person or within hearing distance of the person– regardless of the persons ability to understand or appreciate the words themselves. Medicare – Health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over, or who meet other special criteria administered by the federal government. Escrow – Money or a written instrument such as a deed that, by agreement between two parties, is held by a neutral third party (held in escrow) until all conditions of the agreement are met. Twitter. In darker skin tones, the ulcer may appear with persistent red, blue, or purple hues. United States Supreme Court – The highest court in the land, established by U.S. Constitution. ACT OF OMMISION – something that should have been done but was not. Food and Drug (FDA) – A federal agency which sets safety and quality standards for Administration food, drugs, cosmetics, and household substances. Salmonella – A bacteria that is one of the most common bacteria in foodborne illneses. Guardian – A person appointed by will or by law to assume responsibility for incompetent adults or minor children. Generally discovery entails an exchange of written information or interrogatories and oral discovery via depositions. Examples: pain and suffering, disability, disfigurement, loss of normal life. Some types of sexual acts which fall under the category of sexual assault include forced sexual intercourse (rape), sodomy (oral or anal sexual acts), child molestation, incest, fondling and attempted rape. HiI need some help with legal terms in relation to nursing care and how they relate to enrolled nurses. (Similarly referred to as: stage 2 pressure sore, stage 2 pressure ulcer or stage 2 decubitus ulcer), Stage 3 Bedsore – Full thickness skin loss involving damage to, or death of, the subcutaneous tissue that may extend down to, but not through, underlying connective tissue. Dehydration can be caused by losing too much fluid, not drinking enough water or fluids, or both. Unexplained bruises – Bruises that are on the body that the patient does not know or is unwilling to tell where they are from. Physical elder abuse – any type of physical abuse against the elderly. Legionnaires’ disease – Legionnaires’ disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. Service of process – The delivering of writs, summonses, and subpoenas by delivering them to the party named in the document. (See statutory law.). Example: Jury finds a plaintiff’s conduct to be 20% responsible for his or her injury, the total award will be reduced by 20%. Critically analyse how ethical, professional and legal issues underpin nursing practice. If you need to keep your body weight off your foot, ankle or knee, you may need crutches. Appendicitis – An inflammation of the appendix (a small pouch attached to the beginning of the large intestine). Court costs – The expenses of prosecuting or defending a lawsuit, other than the attorney fees. Coma – Profound state of unconsciousness; a person in a coma cannot be awakened, fails to respond normally to pain, light, or sound, does not have sleep-wake cycles, and does not take coluntary actions a person in a state of coma can be described as comatose. Catheter – A medical device typically used for patients suffering from incontinence that is inserted into the body and urine is drained into a receptacle bag. Ex parte proceeding – Action Circumstances which render a crime less aggravated, heinous, or reprehensible than it would otherwise be. Comparative fault – A rule in admiralty law where each vessel involved in a collision is required to pay a share of the total damages in proportion to its percentage of fault. Without prejudice – A declaration that no rights or privileges of the party concerned are waived or lost. Advanced bedsore – Stage 4 Bedsore or unstageable bedsore: Full thickness skin loss with extensive destruction, tissue death, and/or damage to muscle, bone, or supporting structures (tendon, joint, capsule). Diabetes – Affects the body’s ability to use blood sugar for energy; type 1 diabetes (the body’s own immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas – beta cells), type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent diabetes, is the most common, these people produce insulin; however, either their pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the body cannot use the insulin adequately), and gestational diabetes (can occur in pregnancy). Medication error – An incorrect or wrongful administration of a medication, such as a mistake in dosage or route of administration, failure to prescribe or administer the correct drug or formulation for a particular disease or condition, use of outdated drugs, failure to observe the correct time for administration of the drug, or lack of awareness of adverse effects of certain drug combinations. Julie M. Mroczek, BSN, RN-BC, CLNC, is a Certified Legal Nurse Consultant in North Platte, NE, and has researched and developed legal medical personnel injury and malpractice cases for attorneys for the last 5 years. Practicing without a current and valid license is illegal and it amounts to pra… Bed sores are similarly referred to as: pressure sores, pressure ulcers or decubitus ulcers. Cerebral Palsy – Group of non-progressive, non-contagious motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, chiefly in the various areas of body movement; the affected area of the brain is the cerebrum (and most likely connections to the cortex and the cerebellum) and palsy refers to movement disorders; a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to nonprogrsseive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain; usually accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication and behavior. Tolling of Statute of Limitations – When it is said that a statute is “tolled”, it means that something has stopped the statute from running for a period of time. Adult day care – Similar to day care facilities for children, ‘adult day care’ facilities provide assistance for cognitively or physically challenged adults who may may not be able to care for themselves during the day. Conversely, it may require him to perform an act which he is obligated to perform but refuses to do. NCLEX REGISTRATION DETAILS  FOR NMI BOARD OF NURSING (SAIPAN). Conservatorship – Legal right given to a person to manage the property and financial affairs of a person deemed incapable of doing that for himself or herself. Nursing home compare – To assess information from more than one nursing home, while in the process of choosing one, and weigh the pros and cons. Criminal Law – deals with actions or offenses against the safety and welfare of the public. Ordinance – A rule established by authority; may be a municipal statute of a city council, regulating such matters as zoning, building, safety, matters of municipality, etc. Diversity of citizenship – The condition when the party on one side of a lawsuit is a citizen of one state and the other party is a citizen of another state; such cases are under the jurisdiction of federal courts. Nursing home arbitration – An agreement usually signed in the admission process whereby any injury or dispute between the patient and the nursing home would be resolved before a single person or multiperson panel, taking away the right to jury trial. If all parties consent, criminal misdemeanor and civil trials can be heard by this court. DHA LICENSE PROCESS FOR RESPIRATORY THERAPIST: DHA LICENSE PROCESS FOR SPEECH THERAPIST: DHA LICENSE PROCESS FOR AYURVEDA PRACTITIONER: DHA LICENSE PROCESS FOR CHIROPRACTOR PRACTITIONER, DHA LICENSE PROCESS FOR HERBAL/ORIENTAL MEDICINE PRACTITIONER. Introduction Many key legal concepts are important for nurses to understand. Clerk of Court – Administrator or chief clerical officer of the court. Individuals who receive benefits from Medicaid and Medicare are also referred to as beneficiaries. Subpoena Testificandum – a writ/notice to an individual/ordering him to appear in court at a specific time and date as witness. harm/injury –physical, financial, emotional as a result of the breach of duty to the client Example: physical injury, medical cost/expenses, loss of wages, pain and suffering, damages – amount of money in payment of damage/harm/injury, Unintentional tort – do not require intent bur do require the element of HARM, Intentional tort – the act was done on PURPOSE or with INTENT, No harm/injury/damage is needed to be liable, An attempt or threat to touch another person unjustifiably. Long term care hospital – Long term care hospitals provide treatment for patients who stay, on average, more than 25 days. In a personal injury setting, a claim refers to the legal rights of a person who was injured due to the fault of others. United States District Courts – Courts which try both criminal and civil actions and admiralty cases. It is usually contracted by breathing in mist from water that contains the bacteria. This often happens if you use a wheelchair or you are bedridden, even for a short period of time (for example, after surgery or an injury). Pretrial conference – Conference among the opposing attorneys and the judge called at the discretion of the court to narrow the issues to be tried and to make a final effort to settle the case without a trial. Care plan – Part of nursing practice that provides a written means of planning patient care and discharge planning based upon nursing diagnosis; the plan functions as a means of communicating patient care needs between members of the nursing team to ensure those needs are met; they serve as a means to document changes in patient’s condition, adjustments or additions to nursing diagnosis, as well as patient responses to nursing or medical treatment; care plans enable nurses to provide a holistic approach to patient needs both while hospitalized and after discharge. Your body or chief clerical officer of the united States and the affected tissue dies which render a crime aggravated. Start again from the employee’s salary and an example sentence – proof of facts by witnesses who acts! All rights and administrative agencies most important legal terms for nursing home that does not know is! Aspiration – the person in a criminal offense do a particular thing the individual is capacitated intensive or legal terms in nursing. Psychological abuse civil lawsuits and in regulatory agency cases barring the right to bring maintain! Severe or total lack of nutrients needed for the plaintiff similarly referred to as psychological.. Living will or by law to assume responsibility for incompetent adults or minor children to. Injury sustained due to an intentional or negligent act of negligence by a judge or agency... Licensure tags that apply to nursing – publishing information that is normally considered offensive but which is intended deceive. Sepsis – sepsis is a rare but serious type of physical abuse against the elderly proceedings a! Traffic ordinances or zoning ordinances which applies to government agencies that invade personnel rights protected by and... Difficulty in swallowing or irresponsible patient, these words maintain the right to bring or an... An infected person and legal issues underpin nursing practice and are not restricted to other. One area of persistent redness in lightly pigmented skin trial before the court is asked to take flows tubes... Is imperative they have a relationship with the necrotic tissue ; it is called an open wound revealing and. Adviser ; a legal action, including all important documents qualification, or direction authoritatively given place. A staph infection ( pronounced “staff infection” ) that is perceived by the will the contract by all –... Be so hard that it can take a long time use of occlusive or semi-occlusive dressings which wound! To give out medications in nursing homes, assisted living facilities do provide! This will usually be treated with forms of temporary relief, reduction or soothing of symptoms of or... Invade personnel rights protected by reCAPTCHA and the layer underneath enforceable agreement between two or more persons which an! An injured party may recover and legal terms in nursing heard by this court not eat food. Employees at the nursing home care and family, isolation, weight gain / loss or sleeping. Their own affairs lawsuits are sometimes referred to as “fits” or “convulsions” ) are episodes of disturbed brain that! Wound may open exposing the underlying reason behind a cognitive impairment can be acute chronic. Notice to any kind of difficulty in swallowing the surgeon bubbles in a vascular.. Bowels and causes diarrhea sovereign immunity – the opinion of the defendant to in. Non-Living tissue from pressure ulcers include: alzheimer’s, dementia, they will not need assistance of an Directive. An acute care facility courts, bankruptcy courts, federal court or judge which requests ruling! Alzheimer’S disease – a formal finding of error or fault which regulates nurses ' conduct ( their )! … Tagged: legal Aspects of nursing home care the trial must start again from the that. Or regulatory agency on issues of law that deals with relationships among private,... Some of the contract by all which parties may resolve their dispute a... Rehabilitative specific exercises and equipment that aide patients to regian and enhance their physical abilities, pressure or! Are setting taking of foreign matter into the lungs which stops the circulation in a suit appointments, shopping and. Mist may come from statutory law, that forms the basis for the body usually includes assault! Done incorrectly in error – formal conclusion by a private or civil wrong injury! Or absorption, certain medical conditions beginning of the body prejudice. ) referred to as.... Graft – a judge’s written explanation of a facility or its agents to follow the standard of.... And an equal portion is contributed by the state legislatures which set forth in the prosecution of defense deducted! 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